About Seljuk Turks

STATE MANAGEMENT IN TURKEY SELJUKS

ASC PROF DR  SADI S. KUCUR

MARMARA UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND LITARURE HISTORY DEPARTMENT

Seljuks from East to West or From Khorasan to Anatolia

Geography where seljuks state has appeared and its neighbours should be known for determining  formation and interaction of Seljuks state organization. Early date of Seljuks family who are known to be Kınık tribe of Oghuz turks starts with Yengikent and Cent cities where are winter center of Oghuz yagbus which govern northern and southern parts of Seyhun river which pours into Aral Lake and northern sections of Aral Lake. Cend city which is located in Muslim Samani state and where population is muslim and commercial activities are intense is the city where Seljuks has accepted islam region. Even though circumstances has become harder  Seljuks supported Samani state which was almost ruined and resisting karakhanids  by the end of X. century.  Nur town which is located at upper side of Samarkand and Buhara at center of Maveraünnehir as award for this support.  They maintained this support until ruin of Samanis. In following period Seljuks tried to survive between tow super powers of Ghaznavids and Karakhanids. Then they captured Ghaznavid land Khorasan and founded their state. (1040). Seljuks and then Karakhanidss always brought down Ghaznavids which were ruling Afghanistan and Northern India in their controlling struggles.

Seljuks ruling spread to Iran, Iraq, Syria, Eastern and Southern Eastern Anatolia by conquests which has started just after foundation. There were many big and small states or emirates  Iran during conquest. These were made obedient during Tuğrul Bey period. In Iraq thee was Abbasid State which was under invasion of Shii Buveyhi state. Seljuks which has entered into Baghdad terminated buveyhi domination and maintained collapse of this state. Even though relations between Abbasit Khalifat was friendly at the beginning, it did not continue with such manner and sometimes crisis and stresses have occurred.

Four regional Seljuks state has risen from Great Seljuks state in following times. Kirman 1048, Turkey 1075, Syria 1078 and Iraq 1119 Seljuks states were founded by members of seljuks dynasty as being affiliated with Great Seljuks.  While others has become affiliated with Great Seljuks until the end Turkey seljuks has declared their independency because of competition within dynasty.  Harizmşaj which was founded in 1097 and governing to Iran were Harizm governors who were appointed by Seljuks in the beginning  then they transformed these to states which are affiliated with state. Many states which were found by atabehs which govern states for behalf of un experienced mekil princes and named with same names appeared in line with weakening of central authority over Syria and Iraq seljuks. Main of these area TOgteginliler/Boriler(Damascus),  Zengiler(Cezire and Syria) İldenizliler (Azerbaijan) Salgurlılar (Persia). Seljuks had struggle with their nonmuslim neighbours  a and Karahitay in Turkistan, Georgia in Caucasian area, Armenia in Eastern Anatolia and Cilicia  and Byzantium states in Anatolia.

Naturally Turkey Seljuks considered Great Seljuks as basis with respect to their state organization. However we could not ignore the effect of two facts they encountered in Anatolia over state organizations. One of this is that they were founded over Byzantium lands which have rooted and developed structure. In fact even though influences off Byzantium state organization and enterprises over Seljuks were not investigated or ratio was not investigated, it is not possible to consider that they have less or more interaction. Other one is  actual interventions over state organziatip together with political effects of Mongol invasion which was oppressing the Islamic world.

DYNASTY, IQTA AND GULAM SYSTEM

It can be observed that there are three main factors over principle of state organization is Seljuks state. These are dynasty structure which has common management style throughout history and ğulam an diqta system which form the source of state mechanism. In fact these three main factors are generally present in Medieval time Islamic states even though there are some differences. We should mention that to know state structure is not possible without knowing their importance and properties.

Dynasty which was accepted and considered as legitimate by society forms the source of state president, sultan and possible sultan candidates, state administrators, and prince melik. This property of dynasty makes it to be indisputable and alternativeless. However uncertainty about who will come instead of sultan even in limited numbers stirred up many prince  riot and governance struggle.

Gulam system which is commonly applied in Medieval time Islamic states which is formed by supplying slave or captives is understood to come from Ghaznavids. This system trains qualified and trained personnel for court, center and state bureaucracy.

 Iqta system which was applied in medieval Islamic states with some differences is constituent of Seljuks state. Land system where sate property was taken as principle  (miri arazi) is a comprehensive system including tax collection which is applied by revenue, state and province management recruiting soldier in war time.  Being source and penetrating  for governemnti court, bureaucracy province management, finance and revenue presents its importance of these three organizations in state structure.

As it is in other medieval time Islamic states and Great Seljuks State, in Turkey Seljuks state was built with dynasty, iqta and gulam systems which start from court and diffuse to center, state and army organizations. However when power and authority of sultan is actually disappeared after invasion of Mongols, this harmony and balance was disrupted. Ilhanlı hans were able to ascent the prince in throne who they desire. Also they have promoted the chaos by recognizing  a prince as sultan while other one is in throne. Also they could assign persons in offices like atabeg naibi sultanes and can appoint person who are affiliated with ilhan except sultan’s men.

DYNASTY AND SULTAN

Before Islam It was believed by Turks that authority an power of political  power  (kut) is giwen by God (charismatic governance) that is rulership depends divine source. According to this belief, ruler who has found or starts to lead should member of family which was sent by god and awarded with kut. It seems that this understanding has continued after acceptance Islam religion. Hence as it is all dynasties which have arisen from Oghuzs, Seljuks dynasty attributes themselves to legendary Oghuz Hani, Kınıklar which is one of 24 Oğhuz tribes. Personaity where Seljuks had its name is Selçuk bey who is son of dukak who has title Temür Yaluğ and head of soişders. We know that Selçuk Bey has important position in that location and had immigrated after leacing from there for some reasons and went to Cend, he became Muslim there and he struggled there as Oghuz Yagbu. We can see that he had charismatic personality during this peripd and Oghuzs come together around it. This charisma and kut which has appeaed in personality of Sekçk bey was inherited to his sons after his death. Even though his older son  Asrlan yabgu has become leader of family with yabgu title this could not be made general practice. Opposite  idea for person who will be successor bey yabgu, or sultan will be member of family could not be considered and this is privileged condition. However breaking point or dilemma for dynasty starts from this point. In this case practice about which member will be leader could not be formed. It is observed in Seljuk’s history that any prince becomes sultan depending on varying reasons such as being older, oldest member of dynasty, prince which was appointed or any other reason. Sometimes mother of princes and external forces out of dynasty became effective that is prince who is member of dynasty can be sultan. Naturally this viewpoint has promoted numerous government struggles  and prince riots I history . Factor which determines the result of this challenge has always become power superiority.

Turkey Seljuk’s state which is regional extension of Great Seljuks was found by Kutalmışoğulları who was member of Seljuks dynasty. Suleyman Şah and his borthers departed from their uncle Mikail and achieved to found independent state in Anatolia. However first two sultans Süleymanşah and I. Kılıçarsan lost their lives in force struggles with Great Seljuks because of southeasten (El Cezire, Syria) policy.

Kutalmışoğulları able to continue their governance in Anatolia despite these struggles. Like appearance of Kut Belief as it can be seen from Other Seljks, governance struggles of princes continued. However sometimes tradition of dividing country lands between princes continued. This practice was abandoned since division of country between 11 sons of II Kılıçarslan has caused  shock within country

Struggles which were implemented for behalf of princes who could not maintain superiority over each other during Mongols invasion period where power and authority of sultan was ruined was drifting country into chaos. Even though it is not mentioned in states tradition, experienced and respected states applied for solution of making two or three brothers as ruler.

Its legitimacy was not discussed despite all these power losses. Hense as it can be seen in Sadeddin Köpek and Cimri problems  people who has resorted to throne claim could appear that they are from Seljuks dynasty. However they were failed despite these claims.

Sultan And Abbasid Khalifa

When it is compared with intense relations between Great Seljuk State and Sunni Khalifa which has become more stressful in time relation between Turkey Seljuks and Abbasi Khalifas are less frequent and symbolic. While Süleymanşah is looking legitimacy despite Great Seljuks sultan melikşah and they requested  appointment of Shii kadi and preachers. Even though this indicates  that it has preferred  fatımid khalifa it should be accepted that this is rather political challenge. Until 1266  Khalifa was being mentioned in  with el İmam el Musta sim billa  and someteis el imam el masum billah names in Turkey Seljuks monies until invasion of Baghdad by Hulagu. 1258.  Names of khalifas were never mentioned in coins during Kılıçarsan and following period after chaliphate has passed under governance of Memluks. Sometimes II kılıçarslan and following sultans used expression of burhanus/kasimum/nasru Emirul Muminin  ( evidence/partnet/assistant of Emir of Muslims .

Other valuable relation was Khalifa en Nasır li Dınilla sent indications of futuuvvet to Seşjuk sultan I. keykavus and including him in organization  to be head of Futuvvet Turkish ıslamic guild organization and utilize from power of this organization . He has sent these indications were brough by important sufi of period Seyh Şihabuddin Suhreverdi and later same sufi sent to Anatolia again because of Alaeddin Keykubat2 s ascending in throne.

Overlord state and Dependent

Turkey Seljuks State has mamde some regional forces to be subjected to him in Anatolia until invasion of Mongıl. I. Hetum from Cilcia Armenia kings had to be subjected to be Turkey Seljuks during I. keykubat and II. Keyhusrev periods and included names and titles of these sultans over these coins. Also  Mardin and Amid and Hısn –Keyfa Artus, Erzincan and Divriği meguces, Sumeysat and Aleppo Ayyubid meliks and Musul atabed Bedrüddn Lülü had to be subject to Turkey Seljuks sultan in some periods. However Turkey Seljuks had to be subjected to Mongols after this grandness period.

From 1243 Kösedağ defeat until ruin they were subdued by great Mongol han in Karakorum by regional mongol state altındorda and than other regional mongol state İlhanids which is located in Iran. Even III. Keykubat has placed name of Gazan han as overlors over coins .

Figure 1: Dirhem coin which was minted Ayyubid Melik En Nasır II. Yusug In Aleppo in 637/1239-40 while he was subjected to II. Gıyaseddin keyhusrev

Figure 2: Bilingual dram which was minted by Cilicia Armenian King I. Hetum While he was subjected to Sultan I. A. Keykubat.

Symbols of Sultan

Everything which belongs to Sultan has become his sign in time Throne and crown is naturally exclusive to sultan. Other symbols can be used by subsidiaries and other statesmen together with some restrictions. But ones which belong to sultan were different, subline and unique. Title nickname, tah, instructing name in sermon, coin, stamping nevbet, tughra, and  tecki, court and pavilion, çetr, and gaşiye are some of these.

 Title- nickname- tag:  Title is the adjective or adjective clauses which officially expresses political status of government. There are several rumors about that whether first ruler Süleymanşah has personally used sultan title.  I. Kılıçarslan is mentioned with Sultan name. As other Seljuks sultans Turkey Seljuks rulers generally used es sultanuş muaazzam  ( great, grand sultan) and then es sultanul azam ( greatest sultan). . I keyubat used these two titles irregularly and separately and then after his II. Keyhusrev all Seljuks rulers used es sultanul azam title As state loose power during Mongols invasion period, invressely proportional with this it seems that sultans has more assertive titles.

Different from others II. Süleyanşah used es sultanul kahir(dashed sultan) I. keykavus used es sultanul galib( winner ultan). After Kosedağ defeat  II. Keyhusrev and some  following sultans added title of zillulahi fi lalem ( shadow of Allah in eath) to coins. Longer and decorative titles are observed in epigraphes. Princes used melik title.

Nicknames which were generally used medieval Islamic world are generally in form  adjective + üddünya +üddin, üütdevlet, +ülmiller.  Seljuk sultans generally used nicknames  such as izzuddin (honor, power of religion ) ğıyasuddün ( assister of religion) ruknuddin ( chief pillar of religion) alauddin ( great, honor of religion). Nicknames which are used in coins  always occur  as ızz/gıyas/rukn/ala) +uddunya and ddinç . again tag tradition in form bu( father) continued in Seljuks.  Turkey Seljuks sultans generally used ebul fet h tags.

Sermon:  Sermon which is an element of  Cuma and eid sallah has become a symbol which authority and political government has expressed himself. Sermon which was an opportunity for government which can establish with contact with society and can express itself naturally and effectively was effectively utilized bu khalifa and rulers. First work to do by prince who ascend in throne was to provide to instruct his name in sermons. Otherwise it is considered as rioted. If Abbasi Khalifa considers the request of prince which has applied to him as suitable he provides his name to be instructed in Baghdad and surrounding areas. Thereby legitimacy of government is accepted.

 It is obvious that Request of I. Suleymanşah about kadı and preacher form Trabslusşaö ruler after he has conquered tarsus  is not belief request and it is obvious that it political maneuver against Sultan Melikşah. On the other hand that rumor of Sultan Melikşah gas instructed his name in sermon (and name of Abbasid khalida and cut coin is weak. All turkey seşjuk sultans instructed their names in sermons beginning from I. Kılıçarslan. Some Artuq,s Ayyubid,s, abd Begtegins in Erbil has instructed name of Seljuk Sultans in sermons  as sign of their subjections  when Turkey seljuks ae powerful southern anatokia, Syria and el cezire.

Coin: There are text and symbols indicatin manager which minted money are present over coins for maintaining monetary discipline, reliability which are indeed economic tool. Also managers take the advantage of coins to reach every part of society for spreading and acceptance of authority.

First coins which survived from turkey seljus periods belong to Suştan 1. Mesut. In copper coin Sultan 1. Mesud indicates independency with es sultanul muazzam title but there is illustaration of Byzantium emperor in other face. It is understood that this practice was made for maintaining new coins to be adopted by local people too. First golden dinar was minted by II. Kılıçarslan and then II. Süleymanşah minted it. Majority of coins consist of silver dirhams and copper fels. It was determined that coins are made in 45 royal mints. Konya, Sivas and kayseri are leading mints where most coins are minted. As it can be aboce titles, where they are govern, subjection relations can be determine over coins. Lancer  cavalry, arrow shhoing cavalry, lyon and sun illustrations are shown over coins. All of princes were included over coins when two or more princes governing at the same time.

Figure 3: dirham coin which was cointed by Sultan II Süleyman Şah (596/1199-1220 minted in Aksaray

Figure 4: Dinar which was minted by Sultan I. izzeddin keykavus  in konya 613/1216-17

Figure 5: Dirham with lion sun illustration which was minted by Sultan II. Gıyasedding Keyhusrev in Sivas (639/1241-42)

Figure 6: Dirham which was minted by IV. R. Kılıç Arslan (646/1248-49) in Sivas.

Figure 7: Dirham which was minted by Sul II. İ Keykavus (656/1258) in Develi

Tughra and Tevki: Tughra which is a Turkish word is used for signs of rulers in Oghuz turs which are used in official documents, coins and epigraphs. Tevki is Arabic word and its used for decision of rulers in Medieval Islamic states, their written copies and imperial order and also it used as correspondence for tughra.

We know that tughra is used as arrow bow or as only bow in Great Seljuks, Kirman and Iraq Seljuks states and we know that they are samples over coins. It can be seen that in Turkey seljuks tughra is transformed in sultan/es sultan wrd in documents and epigraphs by mid of XIIIth century. They are written in some endowments and conveyance in wide capital letters. Also   es ultani belonging to sultan world can be some epigraphs of some building which were constructed by dignitaries.

It is understood that Tevki is written over upper part of Tughra for expressing power of Allah in imperial order (menşur). It is possible to see samples of tevkis which are used exclusively for seljuks sultans over coins. These are elizzetullillah, el minnetulillah, elmulkü lillah and el azamatu lillah. It is understood that how strong rulers are they want to mentioned that real power and force and property belongs to Allah and they understood this and they want to express this before using tughra and mentioning hisname

Figure 8.: Tevki and tughra which located in  endowment of Celaleddin karata caravansari

Nevbet:   Beating  Nevbet (mehter /band ) every day five time (salaah times) in front of pavilion of sultan means that sultanate is still ongoing This was a tradition which is inherited from older Turks. Also this nevbet team acts in great meetings, when there is pleasing evolvement and in wars.  Nevbet team was called as nevbetiyye and area where they are located is called as nevbethane or tablhane. Subsidiaries which allowed by sultan can only beat nevbet for three times a day.

Tıraz and Hilat :  Clothes of rulers which are sewn from valuable clothes and which have name, title, tag and nickname of strip was called as tıraz. Gifst which sultan gices to foreign statesment, incoming messenger and statesmen for honoring, awarding, promotion or appoint were called hilat. These gifts particularly consists of sewn which are sewn from valuable clothes and it also includes money, sword, belt, horse, saddle or ğulams.

There are many records that in Turkey Seljuk send  or give hilat to dignitary statesent, also foreign rulers, vassals, melik princes, statesmen important people of which punishment were forgiven, messengers kısad, couriers, person who performed an important mission, poets

Çetr: This is Sanskrit word which means umbrella that is held over head for protecting against sun. In eastern societies çetr was eşd over head of ruler while he was over horse, walking or sitting at throne by ğulam (çetrdar).  In turkey Seljuks color of umbrella which is called as çetri humayun, çetri cihangir or çetri şahanşah was black. It is understood that çetr is not just simple shade appearance or opening it means that it has same meaning with opening starboard. Because in several ceremonies presence of sultan can be understood remotely  from çetr in ceremonies, travels, and in battle field. Therefore symbolic meaning for it was very important. People who see çetr from far away  gets down from horses and even kiss the ground and present their respect. Accidentally fall down of çetr during war may lead soldiers feel worry about life of their sultan and loss of war because of confliction.

Figure 9: Çetr which is held over Seljuk sultan sencer when an old women was presenting petition to sultan.

Ğaşiye: Ğaşiyye which is an Arabic word means cover of saddle even though it has many meanings. However in Seljuks history we can see it as a completely different sign rather than ordinary saddle cover. It is used for presenting carrying people which should carry people who should present respect  to ruler or obedient with them. Normally Ğaşiye is carried over hand by rikadar which is present in cortege of Sultan. However it can be seen that after conquer of city for obedience of city ruler to sultan or meeting ceremonies for subsidiaries to present their loyalty. Subsidiaries carry ğaşive of ruler  over heads or shoulders and walk under it.

COURT AND ORGANIZATION

Court is space where they are house of rulers and manage the state. There are several courts which belong to ruler and members of dynasty where remains of it has survived in several locations. Main of those are Alladdin villa in Konya, Keykubadiya Court in kayseri, Kubadabad Court next to Beyşehir lake, Alaye (Alanya)Court, Alara Castle Quasr, Antalya Court. Courts which are located in coastal areas were used as summer house and ones which are located in inner side high locations are used as summer houses.

Pat where sultan lives his life together with his family and servants is called as harem. Wives of married wives of sultan, young aged children and courtesans which serve tham and under control of hace saray eunuc were located there. There were muganni and Muganniyes (male and female singers) mutrip and mutribes (male and female musicians) for entertaining sultan and ,physicians  and muabbir  dream interpreters. Generally sultans take harem together with them and send them to safer places in dangerous cases.

Personnel for sultan who provides close service and performs general works generally selected from people who were treated by Ğulam system.  Ğulams who perform buying slaves, selling slaves or type of sending gift were trained in ğulamhane by people who are called as baba “father”. After this training they start to serve in several organizations of court like court, government, army, state etc according to their competence.  Court emirs generally have other secondary or  tasks except their main tasks since they are trusted more. Because most of records concerning with court emirs are concerning with such missions. These emirs who consist of sword compotents serve as commander or send as messenger.

Majority of these servants are present sometimes similarly and with minor differences in Great Seljuks court. Main emirs which also have their own ğulams are as following with respect to importance order

Melikül hüccab or emir –I I hacib: It is highest rank officer of court. He has hacibs under his control.

He provides contact between sultan and Divanı Ala- high council. However in sources they are mentioned and commanders or temporary tasks such as messenger.

Emir-I perdedar: He is emir who is responsible for ones are goes to or from presence of Sultan.

Üstadü d-dar.  This is the official  who meets requirements of courts kitcgen, oven and barn and salaries court personnel from sources which are allocated from sources.

Emir-I dad: He was executing penalties of person who are punished for committing political crime against particularly sultan and state. People was afraid of him very much since he has very influencing task and which has hi court and subordinates.

Emir-i ahur: this emir is responsible from court’s barn and horse of sultan.

Emir-I alem: This emir carries starboard of sultan during campaigns and ceremonies and he is responsible from starboard.

Emir-I camedar: He is responsible from camehane where clothes of sultan are present and clothing of sultan. Emir-I camedar and subordinares present clothes and golden hilats within  javelles for sultans who ascend in throne.

Emir- i candar: this title is formed with can which means gun is Persian and dar which means carrier. This emir is emir who is responsible fromsecurity of emir sultan and court.

Emir-I çalniigr:  Çaşnigir is a Persian composition who keeps tastes and tastes falovors. He is responsible for meals and dining table of sultan and determines whether meals are poisonous. Therefore his greatest struggle was taking precautions for preventing this since firstly he will lost his own life.

Emir-I meclis: Task of this emir which was not observed in other Seljuk states was to organize entertainment meetings.

Emir-I silah: This emir is responsible from silahhane weapon house of  court and carries the weapon of sultan in ceremonies.

Emir-I şikar /Emirüsayd:  this emir is responsible from hunting animals of court and organizes the hunting ceroomonies of sultan which is some kind of war practice. It is understood that bazdar who is responsible from hunting birds ( birdman, falcon man) works as subordinate of this emir.

Emirü t-taşt/taşti:  There is not much information about actual task of this emir in resources and he is responsible from cloth washing containers, sword, footwear, cushion, mattress and similar goods which are used by ruler for washing hand face, performing ablution like wash bowl, pitcher granite.

Şarabdar-ı/hass/Şarab salar: He is responsible from şarabhane where all kind of drinks are kept and drinks in ruler assemblies and drinks of ruler’s guests.

Haznedar-I (Hıznedar-ı) hass: He is responsible from treasury where  money, jewellary, hilat, arm and other valuable sets are kept.

Rikabdar: Emir who is owner of this title meaning stirrup holder assists ruler while he is getting on and down the horse and carries the gayşiye which is sing of sultanate in ceremonies.

Astrologer(Müneccim): This person deals with astrology and makes estimation about positive and adverse evolvements before important decisions of sultan.

Üstad-s Saray (teacher) He deals with education of princes. It is understood that he gives training about correspondences, communication, calculation and history.

CENTRAL (GOVERTNMENT) ORGANİZATION

It seems that government and bureaucracy tradition in Great Seljuks which is part of Medieval Eastern Islam world which is under influence of Sasani Bureaucracy heritage is also observed in Turkey Seljuks state. Generally there are not changes in authorities of vizier, operation of Divan-I ala supreme council abd practice of attendance of leaders of four councils into this council. However Mongolian invasion caused appearance of some different practices.

Vizier: Vizier starts to work with menşur (imperial order) of sultan. It manages all state affairs with capacity of having all executing , legislation and judgment authorities. Generally task area and authorities of vizier are same with Great Seljuks vizier. However after actual case which was created by  Mongol invasion started to  work according to requests of İlhanid rulers and general governors who were appointed by them rather than sultans of which authorities were removed.

Moving further İlhanids started to appoint a second vizier and atabed who are affiliated with them except vizier of sultan. Therefore works for statesmen are generally for the advantage of İlhanids rather than Seljuks state and country.

Divan-I Ala: This great council of which chairman is vizier can be considered as correspondence or government or cabinet of ministers. Other members of divan are heads of divan-I tuğra/imşa, divan-I istifa, divan-I arz, divan-I işraf  and naib-I saltanat, atabeg and pervane. First four of these are same with Great Seljuks sample  and other can be seen in Turkey’s Seljuk practices.

Divan-I Tuğra/inşa: title of head is sahib-I divan-I tuğra/inşa or tuğrai. This council issues internal and external diplomatic, official correspondence and other documents and issues tughras for imperial order.

Divan-I İstifa: title of head is sahib-I-divan-I istifa or müstevfi. This council organizes revenue and expenses of treasury and prepared annual budget. This corresponds current ministry of finance.

Divan- Arz: Head was called as sahib-ii divan-arz and representatives in states were called as arız. Determination of number of soldiers and recruitment, supplying mişitary equipment, record and control, management of iqtas which were conferred to soldiers, payment of salaries which are called as mistegani for hassa army in every three months are under responsibility of this council.  That is its area of office corresponds to ministry of defense.

Divanı-I işraf: Its head was called as sahibi divan-I işraf or müşrif. He is responsible from controlling and supervision of  financial affairs of state, revenue and costs and their

Other statesmen which participate to divan-ala except from four head of councils different form great seljuks:

Atabeg: This title can be seen in Seljuks. In great seljuks one bureaucrat who is reliable and has experience is sent together with prince who are sent to states as melik. He manages the state for behalf of prince and prince gets experience. Task of atabeg continued in Seljuks dynasty too. When princes who ascend in throne in Iraq Seljuks moved their atabegs to center,  caused their mission area from limited melik atabeg to sultan atabeg. Institution gained an aspect except than its meaning. Zengis in Musul, and İldenizs in Azerbaijan, Salgurlus in Perisa has transformed in political organizations like meliklik, emirlik and atabeglik.

There were melik and sultan atabeg practice in Turkey Seljuks. However precautions were taken for preventing it turn into political organization. Different from Great Seljuks, atabegs were attending to divan I ala starting from sultan atabeg practice which starts with Iraq Seljuks. Even though area of activities of vizier, atabeg and naib-I saltanat are certain it can be seen that owners of  these offices deal with works which can coincide with each other. İlhanids intervene these offices during Mongol invasion peripd and started to appoint a second atabeg who is responsible against İlhanids.

Naib-I saltanat: Even though naib title was used as representative  of several offices, title of naib-I saltanat most possibly used first time in medieval islam world and in Turkey Seljuks. First samples are observed by early XIII century. Mission of naib-i saltanat is to be deputy of Sultan when he left capital city. Even though situation of Ebu l kasim which Süleyman Şah left instead of him during Syria campaign and Ebu-l gazi who performed office after him is suitable with this case, it is not known whether that title has appeared in that period. Insources this office is mentioned with different clauses such as niyabet I hazret I saltanat or niyabet I slatant I rum,. It comes after atabeg and vizier in protocol. When central authority ruined after domination of Mongols, statesmen entered into cooperation with them for their prosperity. Two head occurred in these offices like atabeg and vizier. Naib for behalf of Mongol han started to be appoint except naïb of sultan. As result İlhanid Abaka han  appointed vizier Sahip Ata as his niyabet I hazret I ulya and Müstevfi Celaleddin Mahmud as naibüs saltanatül muazzama. In the abstract their area of activity is determined there are not certain differences in works of vizier, atabeg and naib-i saltanat.  In sources  tasks for persons having this title seems to be protect and eliminate them, to suppress riots, to defend capital city, to provide support against Mongols by meeting with neighbor countries, to work as messenger and to be head of bridal procession.

Divan- pervanegi: Some kind of documents and person who prepare them are called as pervane and office which issues these documents are called as divab o pervanegi.  We do not have much information about  Pervane term which is understood to be important judgment and imperial order in Great Seljuks. Pervanegi  is responsible from land works such as property, iqta and issuıes assignment, transfer and census documents concerning with this, prepares menşur and certificates. He is member of divan- I ala even though it is not top level service. Issues about when it started to be member, this case was outstanding because of Mongol invasion or personal influences over sultans should be investigated. Most famous of pervanes which gave his name to a period during Mongol invasion period was Muinuddin Süleyman Pervane . Because his power was caused from its personal properties and force rather than pervane office.

There were some other councils which were not affiliated with divan I ala and heads of those were not attending to council meetings.

Divan-I mezalim: This council which was common in Medieval Islamic states was inherited to Seljuks too. This was highest rank office where people claim right avout officers and soldiers who use their force badly and applied pressure and received more tax from civil people and hope justice appears.  This council which meets twice a day in first times of Great Seljuks  and sultan was personally head of council later he left these liabilities to vizier, and meliks and leaders of kadis in state and provinces. This council is present in Turkey Seljuks. Hence it is known that II. Keyhusrev comes to this council divan I mezalim (dad gah  on Mondays and Thursday and listen complaints in presence of imams and kadis  and dispences justice.

Divan-evkaf-I memalik: Foundations who are autonomous organizations are subjected to endowment accordingly with provisions who has founded  as it is issued by kadi according to foundations law.  Unless there are Practices contrary with foundation law , abuses, corruptions or disputes there is not any external intervention. Otherwise divan –I evkafı memalik  takes control over event initiates investigation and judges responsible.

Divan-I hass: He is responsible for lands of which revenues are allocated to sultan.

PROVINCE ORGANIZATION AND IQTA SYSTEM

As it is known province is tax source of state and grain warehouse of society. Iqta tax was collected from soils were grain  are planted and cropped and also cereals need of country is met. Iqta which is present in Medieval Islamic world was developed and popularized by Nizamulmulk as military iqta and military system which depends on land and which attends to army only in war cases has occurred. This practice continued in Ottoman state  under name of tımar as ppart of miri arazi system where property of state over country’s land is principle.

We can mention main properties of this system as following:

  • Land revenue tax is collected separate from type of planted crop.
  • Service prices of managers who are appointed to provinces and states are collected in situ.
  • Provinces where they appointed or smaller administrative units are managed by muktas. ( iqta owners during peace period
  • Soldiers of which amount is determined before campaign are provided to attend to
  • Tax collection, state management and solider recruitment is maintained by this system and there by source wastage and unnecessary employment is prevented. There was no need money transfer between center and state and revenues are evaluated according to their own region.
  • In addition that mukta does not have property in land and also it does not have disposal over peasant who process soil and gives tax. Similarly system does not have feudal character since tax is not determined by iqta owner, state determines it and iqta owner does have disposition over peasants. In great Seljuks, management of entire state was given to meliks and great commanders and thereby iqta revenues were allocated without dividing. All these problems were observed when central authority has weakened and thereby different practice was initiated for granting iqta. Iqta lands which are allocated to a governor in return of administrative service (salary/price) were not given as single piece, they are granted in different locations that is away from location where they perform governorate. Thereby opportunity for riot was not given in iqta areas which is also recruitment period. Also this practice was given up since  indications of political degradation has appeared after Sultan II. Kılıçarslan has allocated company management between his 11 sons
  • Iqta was granted to court emit and bureaucrats in centra organization as additional revenue. However these are separated from administrative iqtas since they do not live in iqta areas and were not given for food supply for soldiers.
  • There were personal iqtas which was inherited from father to son and appeared as money donation.

In addition that it is not as much as certain in Great Seljuks, there are state administrative units in province management in Turkey Seljuks. Even though state name is not mentioned, locations where governors are appointed are not only consists of city they are mentioned together with their surrounding.  This indicates that state management is applied actually.

We can mention titles which administrators who were sent to provinces as manager such as following. :

Melik(prince), meliküs sevahil/reiül bahr, sahin, sübaşı /serleşker, mukta, naib

MILITARY ORGANIZATION

Military organization of Turkey Seljuk has the property of being successor of Great Seljuks with respect to military organization. Thereny both of them are based on Turkmen because of their stepped Turkish state which is based on unions of tribes. However Turkmens which form the main element and majority of military forces were resisting the central policies of Seljuks sultan and played role which may shock state in prince riots so that they were made out of system in time. In Great seljuks they were tried to be distributed within Gulam system as alternative of them for breaking tribe solidarity based upon recommendation of nizamulmulk. Elements which resist despite this migrated to western side and concentrated in Azerbaijan and Anatolia. Turkmens were pushed towards End sides in Turkey Seljuks where same problem was experienced in 1176 but the began to provide military service under administration of margraves and formed foundation of beyliks for second period.

Ğulam Soldier:

These are permanent, professional soldiers having salary which were selected from Ğılam which were trained in Ğulamhanes after being supplied with several ways. It is known that there are many ğulams from different elements in Turkey Seljuks such as Turki Kıpçaki, Hıtay, Kurd, Tajik, Deylemli, Kazvinli, Keşmirli, Armenian, Georgina, Rus, Frank and even Chinese. These are referred with different names with respect to their location and tasks.

Ğulaman-I ass: these were ğulams which mention entire court ğulams, selected from ğulaman* dergah and directly affiliated with personnaly with sultan and they always with Sultan.  These perform personal service and quardianship of sultan but they are assigned with different works based upon order of sultan.

Some of soldiers which were selected from brave and grand ones perform guardianship of court and some of them works as guardian for sultan. Other part of Ğulamanı hassa were mulazimans who were expressed as servants. Mulazimanı yatak I humayun were personally in service of sultan and thereby they were forming an important place in hassa army.

İkta Soldier

As it was mentioned before iqta system which has multi aspects is that it makes contribution army by soldiers which are recruited before campaigns in iqta areas. Turkey Seljuks state was an extension of Great Seljuks  and inherited this system which was  one of its main factors. However military iqtas were made smaller and authorities of emirs which were send to provinces as sübasşı commande (serleşker) was limited as to commander of soldiers in area which they will recruit. These positive changes strengthened the central authority and made contribution for stability and development of country until Mongol invasion. İqta soldiers which are known as leşker I kadim in sources were dealing with their own works during peace time but they were recruited in army when there is campaign order. Salary was not paid for these soldiers as it is in professional soldiers and mercenaries.

Mercenaries

These were mercenaries having different origins  mainly franks and Turkmens are included which are supplied when required. This application is observed in Turkey Seljuks by early XIII century .These soldiers which are mentioned in sources as leşker I hadis were effective sometimes. Hence it is known that frank soldiers which were forefront against Turkmens were effective in suppression of bbai report.

Ancillary forces

Cilicia Armenia kingdom which has to be subjected to be state, Trabzon rum state, Artuqs which are ruling Eastern, Southern-Eastern Anatolia and Northern Syria, Menguceks and Ayyubids were sending soldier when area and city rulers need according to liability of subjection.

There were irregular voluntary troops such as evbaş, ayyar , city forces, veterans which  attend to army by themselves of compulsorily.

Navy

It is known that first Navy was founded by Çaka bey who was contemporaries of Seljuks and who gave his daughter to Sultan I. Kılıçarasn and which has found a beylik around  izmir and had activities in Aegeans see. However Sultan I. Kılıçarslan who  has relied on Byzantium emperor eliminated his father in law. First Seljuks navy was founded by Ebul kasım which I. Süleymanşah has left him instead of himself. Even though ship construction was started in Kios port in Marmara sea, Byzantium navy fired these ships.

After these experiences  by end of XII century where political stability was maintained, steps started to be taken for economic developments. Caravansarais were built maintains road safety for development of  domestic and foreign trade. Antalya, kalonoros (Alaiyye-Alanya) and Sİnop port cities even Suğdak port in Kırım was conquered. Remains of shipyard which was made for construction of navy in Alanya has survived until present time.

Commander of navy which had reisül bahr title was located in Sinop which is marine base in Black sea by mid XIII century. It is understood that this commandership has arrived to Mediterranean coasts, Antalya and Alanya after mongol invasion and had titles of firstly emirüs sevahil and then melikü-s sevahil.

Divan-arz:

As it was mentioned before this council was responsible from administrative affairs of army, supplying soldier, salaries of ğulam soldiers, control of iqtas, maintaining equipment for army, preparation of campaign route, inspection of soldiers, determination and distribution of captures and keeping records.

Administrative Staff of Army

Beylerbeyi: Chief commander of army is naturally hakan or sultan according to Tyrkish state traditions. Highest rank military office after this was beylerbeyi (emirül umera). This should correspond emir I sipehsa  chief commander in Great Seljuks. Except these beylerbeyi in center there were Sahivi Etrak in other edges. Howeve any emir who was appointed as army commander  has the title of beylerbeyi. Because persons who have this title, or vizier or any court emir could be appointed as commander.

Sübaşı (Serleşker): Generally it has Ğulam origin and they are responsible for administrative or military works for one or more provinces, or smaller administrative units  or castles. They are divided into two group such as serleşkeran I saltanat and serleşkeri I vilayet I uç. Training iqta soldiers in their region, make them ready for war together with their arm and equipments were their task. İqta and salary were granted for their office their task are determined by center (divan I arız, people who commit ignorance and defecrs are heavily punished.

Ellibaşı- head of fifty: They were commanding troops consisting of fifty iqta soldiers.

Kutval /Dizdar/ Kaledar. They are castle commanders who were appointed by Sultan or Sübaşı. They are responsible from safety and peace where castle is located. These have salaries and iqta revenues too.

Equipment of Army

As the other states of era, Turkey seljuks were using sword, dagger, spear, knobs, axe for close fighting and lifgt arms such as bow and arrow for remote distant fights. Defense equipment consists of shield, hard hat and armor  and heavy weapons were catapult, arrada, çarh and neft. Particularly it is known issue that arrows and horse riding has important place for winning wars throughout Turkish history.

LEGAL ORGANIZATION

According to Nizamulmulk, sultan is the owner of judgment, sutan should appoint naib if he  does not know Islamic law. That is kadis are their naibs that is they judge for behaşf of them. As it can be seen from other İslamic states, justice is maintained in towns, provinces that is in all country by kadis. Kadil Kulat ( Kadi of Kadis, chief kadi) was the head of legal organization. He was appointed by ceremony which was held by Sultan.  Kadıl kudat and kadis were theoretically not depended on sultan or divan I ala and they were deciding independently. However in practice their authorities were limited they were executing orders of sultan and they could be dismissed by him. They were affiliated with governor in states and provinces. Scholars and people who are from scribe family and generally it was inherited from father to son. Kadi is authorized in religion and sharia law and council has to support him. Kadi is also judge that is customary court is implemented by him. Sources which are used by Kadi during legal activities are Quran, Haditg, words of sectarian imam and friends of his holiness prophetcompanions and rules which were issued by antecedents. Kadis are the only authorized decision bodu for works in dialy life, divorce, real estate, purchase, sales, arrangement of endowments and their register, disputes concerning with foundations and several issues such as  ordinary crimes. Like Great Seljuks  there was other Kadi which has title of kadıyı haşem andleşkeri hazret concerning with courts about members of Hassa (bodyguard of Sultan) armies.  This kadi  also supervises the foundations.

 

Origin of Seljuks and Appearance in History ‘s Stage

 Prof. Dr. Hamit Pehlivanlı

Kırıkkale University Lecturer

Asc Prof.  Suleyman Özbek

Gazi University Lecturer

Seljuk’s is member Kınık tribe of Oğuzlar.  Son of Dokak Bey is founder and he is the person who has given his name to dynasty. Dokak was known as” Iron Bowed” within Oghuz tribe . This nickname indicates that he has the most prestigious and highest rank within state after Yabgu. Recent studies indicate that Dokak and societies which are affiliated with them are affiliated with Oghuz Yabgu state in homelands which are located at northern side of Aral Lake. Selçuk Bey was at 17-18 years old when his father died and he became army commander instead of him. Even though it is said that he has left country with 100 horsemen since he has fallen out of with him accuracy of this claim is very poor. The fact is that reason for this leave is narrowness of location and problems in grass. Because Selçuk Bey and tribes which are affiliated with him were living in Maveraünnnehir and Khorasan with crowded manner. Selçuk Bey came to Cend city  which is located in left hand side of Seyhun river(Sir Deryaa) together with people with him. This is an Oghuz city and it was border city between Muslims and Turks. Arrival of Seljuks to this  area and Oghuz Turks’ being muslim become a commencement for important period in history.

Selçuk Bey evaluated political and geographical opportunities of area he has arrived very well. He brought muslim religious men from buhara and Harezm and ensured rapid propagation of Islam within Oghuzs. Then this Turkish society which is affiliatedwith Seljuks and called as Turkmen has gained a new identity with political and social perspective. He has declared Jihad against Oghuz state by dismissing the officers of Oghuz Yagbu state who have come for collecting annual taxes for Oghuz yagbu state. This behavior was useful because of two reasons. Firstly it has maintained some Muslims and Turkish people who desire to participate to war to be with his side secondly he broke governance of Oghuz state around Cend and facilitated formation of independent management. Seljuks of which influence and power increase in time began to play important role in regional events after recognition of its independency by neighbor states. He sent assistance to Samanoğulları by his son Arslan since it has requested assistance. Even though Samanoğulları could survive a bit more by this assistance it was destroyed by karakhanide and  gahznavid states because of ongoing internal conflictions. Seljuks started to take place in political events after this date.

We see that Oghuz state organization is applied as exactly same in Seljuks too. Yabgui yınal, inanç, bey and similar titles which are owned by Seljuks dynasty members were taken from Oghuz Yagbu state Selçuk Bey has laid formation of Seljuks Empire which will be included in important states in world history  and has organized it  and he was dead by 1009. Selçuk who was estimated to be 100 years old had four sons  Those were Mikail, Arslan, (İsrafil), Yusuf and Musa. Oldest son was dead during a war while his father was alive. Remaining sons of Mikail  Tuğrul and Çağrı were governed by their grandfather  and were grown up very well. Arslan has become head of administration after death of Selçuk bey. Yusuf and Musa were assisting Arslan yagbu. Tuğrul and Çağrı Bey recognized their uncle Arslan yagbu as head of family after death of their grandfather Seljuk Bey. Tuğrul and Çağrı Beyof which ages are around 14 15 years  took place in administration. In addition to being affiliated with Arslan Yagbu they were head of Turkmen tribes which were affiliated to itself according to Turkish traditions and customs.

Samani state was ruined when Seljuks has gone to Maveraünnehir. Thereby this area was seized by karakhanids which made agreement with Ghaznavids. Thereby Seljuks directly encountered with Karakhanids. Ruler of Maveraunnehir Karakhanid Ilig Nasr Han was refraining from Seljuks and also he wanted to utilize from their power. Tugrul and Çağrı Bey were trying to take necessary precautions for not suffering since there was misconfidence between parties. Seljuks’ went to Buğra han who is great ruler of karakhanid who is located in Talas area of Central Asia because of hostile attitude of him. Buğra Han who appears to behave goods against them were also refraining from them and  was watching opportunity for arresting them. Thus Buğra han took the advantage of a situation  and immediately arrested Tuğrul Bey. And sent military troops over çağrı bey. Çağrı Bey  defeated karakhanid soldiers and captured their commanders. Buğra Han had to release Tuğra bey because of this unexpected evolvements. Tuğrul and Çağrı Bey had to return back to Maveraünnehir  together with Turkments1

1 Ibnul esir el kamil trc IX s 362 G

Arrival of Seljuks Into Khorasan Area

When societies who were affiliated with Tuğrul and çağrı bey returned back to Maveraunnnehir, they had encountered with resistance of Ali Tigin who had governance in Karakhanid State. Ali Tigin has formed an ally with Arslan Yagbu  who is one of commanders of Seljuks for improving its political power in area.Ali Tigin was a ruler who has a county but he did not have an army. However Arslan Yagbu was a leader who has an army but he did not have country. Ali tigin would gain political prestige by this ally and gained superiority against other karakhanid groups  and Arslan Yagnu improved his power and has become only leader who has voice in Seljuks family. Situation of these did not escape from attention of other political group, particularly karakhanid and ghaznavid.  Karakhanid ruler Yusuf kadir han desired to send his brother Ali  from Maveraün nehir. Ghaznavid mahmut desired to spread its reign to Maveraünnehir area. Both Ghaznavid Yusuf Kadir Han and Ghaznavid Mahmud were seeking to get rid of Ali Tigin. However they were worrying particularly for Arslan Yagbu and Seljuk Turkmens.

Tuğrul and Çağrı brothers made assessment concerning with bad situation in Maveraünnehit and started to look for a new homeland. Tuğrul Bey took women and children  and recessed to safer location for not being exposed to attacks and raids and Çağrı Bey started to campaign towards Anatolia together with 3000 people under his commandership. Çağrı Bey Passed through Khorasan Area and entered into Anatolia region over Azerbaijan. (1018). Çağrı Bey who has arrived until van Area defeated Armenian forces. He returned back to Tuğrul bey after staying in Armenia and Georgia for a while. Ghaznavides  could not prevent passage of çağrı bey and his men from this area. In his report for Tuğrul Bey çağrı bey reported that there is not any obstacle  and Anatolian lands are suitable to make homeland.

Karakhanid Yusuf Kadir han and Ghaznavid Mahmud discussed the situation of Seljuks in their meetings and began to look for ways for elimination of this danger. Ghaznavid made a fraud and brought Arslan yagbu to Semerkand and arrested him. He imprisoned him in Kalincar castle in India(1025). There was administration change in Seljuks family as result of this unexpected case. Even though actual administration belongs to Tuğrul and Çağrı bey, they declared their uncle Musa as yagbu because of traditions. Even though Karakhanid Ali Tigin has offered cooperation to Tuğrul and Çağrı Bey  by sending messengers since his ally was arrested this offer was rejected. Therefore Ali Tigin started to attact Seljuks. Seljuks suffered heavy losses because of these attacks and had to recessed harezm which was governed by Ghaznavids. Harun who was son of Harezm Governor Altuntaş who has died within short time period continued his father’s policy against Seljuks. Meanwhile harun started independency actions against Ghaznavids. Therefore he made agreement with Ali Tigin and included Seljuks within this ally. This case made prestige of Seljuks to be better again. There by triple ally against ghaznavids was founded. However it appears from sources that primeval enemy of Seljuks held instant raid against Seljuks  in 1034. Seljuks lost 8-10 thousand people and  gave many surrenders consisting of mainly children and women and barely escaped their life.

Sources mention this event as the biggest disaster which Seljuks has encountered. Seljuk’s  bind up their wounds by their ally Harezm governor harun and restored a little bit.  However death of Harun after and assassin which was organized by Ghaznavids  and death of other ally in 1035 caused them to be alone in area and had to leave Maveraunnehir.

Mesut Became ruler after death of Ghaznavie Sultan Mahmut. Mesut also desired Turkmens to be affiliated with its commander Hacib Humar Taş since he does not trust them as his father. Fifty Oghuz dignitaries including Yağmur who was one of Turkmen commanders were killed by Humar Taş. This event cause raise of revenge in Turkmen groups who flood into Maveraunnehir from Turkistan. Turkmen turned upside down and plundered rey, damgan area and destroyed everywhere. They defeated Ghaznavid army which was reinforced with elephants and killed humar taş and other commanders. (1034)

Tuğrul and çağrı bey entered into Khorasan area  in 1035 which was ruled by ghaznavides together with Musa Yagbu and Yınallar who were affiliated with Seljuks family  ( tuğrul bey2s brother with same mother, Ibrahım yınal and forces) . Even though their number was low as they progress towards Merv and Nesa,Turkmens who do not have leader did not worry to come together around this young Seljuk leader. Tugrul and Çağrı bey became a big force consisting of 10.000 horsemen as Arslan Yagby Turkmens who do not have leader has participated them. Seljuk’s passing to Khorasan by this manner is one of important events within history. Because bold and brave çağrı bey  tuğrul bey who has executive states properties have laid foundation of Seljuks which is one of important states of history.

Seljuks firstly sent a messenger to Ghaznavids and declared that they want to be under ruling of Ghaznavid and they will work  as border watchman, they will give tax and will pledge in court .However sultan Mesut rejected offer of Mesut, tuğrul and çağrı bey and ordered immediate evacuation of Turkmens from Khorasan. Sultan who did not consider recommendations of its vizier order preparation of an army including elephants .Ghaznavid army which has attacked Seljuks in Nesa area had suffered a heavy defeat (29 June 1035). Ghaznavid state awarded autonomy as result of this event and sent hilat, menşur and sancak and gave Nesa, Ferava, and Dihistan as homeland. This victory which the first which Seljuks won against Ghaznavids caused Seljuks feel confidence against them  selves. This results indicate that Tuğrul and Selçuk Bey are not only good commanders but also they are good leaders. Thereby Seljuk chieftains had become a natural ruler actually which do not have any liability against ghaznavids.

Seljuks increased their power day by day by means of this success. Seljuks which became stronger after attendance of Turkmens violated agreement and expanded their lands up to belh and sistan. Also they started to attack towards Ferave, Çüzcan abd Serahs.  As result of  Such attitudes of Sultan  Seljuks collected a great army for completely evacuating them from Khorasan. Sultan who is lack of political and stratetic thinking could not comprehend importance of event s and then transferred administration of army to commanders and initiated India campaign.  Ghaznavids again heavily defeated in second  war around Serahs  (1038)

After learning defeat Sultan Mesud gave up India campaign and returned  back to Khorasan rapidly.  Approximately 300 elephants were accompanying army consisting of 50.000 soldiers.  Seljuks could not with stand wars which has started in 1939 and lasted for long time period an recessed towards deserts. Slejuks which were recessing during conflicts which has started by spring  has destroyed water wells which are present over their route  and caused Ghaznavid army to remain without water. They were dragging down and maltrating  an army consisting of 100.000 soldier . Finally both armies faced in front of Dandanakan castle and a great war has occurred. Sultan Mesut who was severely defeated after 3 day battle and had to leave his treasure, weights behind was killed by his own men. (23 May 1040). Fights which has started with Selçuk bey and continued with his son Arslan Yagbu and particularly by his grandson Tuğrul and Çağrı bey  were ended with victory. Seljuks successfully achieved from their challenging  fight which has started on first at they entered to Cern  and achieved to found an independent state. Tuğrul Bey was declared as sultan of newly found Seljuks state in assembly which was held after dandanakan victory. Thereby foundation of Turkish start which will be called as Great Seljuks state was completed.  

Seljuks In Tuğrul Bey Period

News for victory was notified to neighbor rulers as a customs for that period. One letter bearing signature of Tuğrul Bey was sent to Abbasid Khalifat in Baghdad. It was delivered between three leaders who are member of state dynasty as requirement of Turkish customs. Area between Ceyhun and Gazne was  awarded to Çağrı bey. Bust and Sistan area which has center of Herat was awarded to Musa Yagbu. Tuğrul bey has remained in capital nişabur as having the capacity of Sultan and made Iraq and surrounding and western sections of state o be affiliated with him. Share was given to second  degree dynasty members in this distribution.  Ibrahim Yınal was appointed to Kuhistan, Kutalmış gurgan was appointed to Damgan  Sekçuklu Ruler tried to govern in their area and expand their lands after this division. Majority Iran, Harzemi Tatarstan, Gurgan, oman, Iraq, Northern Syria, and Azerbaijan and makority of Islamic countries fell under domination of Seljuks.

After foundation Seljuks State has become two separate states such that eastern one is ruled by Çağı Bey and western one is ruled by Tuğrul Bey accordingly with old Turkish State understanding. Coining for behalves of their names separately for Tuğrul bey and Çağrı Bey is indication for this. However there was always close cooperation and solidarity between two brothers.  They always helped each other when they encounter with internal or external intervention. Indeed these two states were complementing each other with respect to their activities and roles. Dealing with mostly eastern and south eastern side by Çağrı Bey provided opportunity to Tuğrul Bey to deal mostly with western side. Çağrı Bey used “ Emir” and than Melik-King” which are Islamic terms instead of yabgu.

However even though Tuğrul Bey has used Emir title for short time period he will use Sultan title later. Thereby it can be said at least Tuğrul Bey has legal superiority.

In the beginning Seljuks were underestimated by neighbor rulers. However movement of Tuğrul bey towards west with a big Army has frightened them. Buveyhoğulları is the state which has got into flap mostly. Tuğrul Bey inactivated them as they will not be serious danger. He broke resistance of local powers in area. Immediately after this he progressed towards west without encountering an important hazard and hold the borders of Egypt Fatımid Empire. Relations between Seljuks and Abbasid Empire plays an important role in Seljuks history. Khalifa  Haim Bi –Emrillah sent messengers to Tuğrul Bey and Other Seljuks leaders and tried to establish good relations. Tuğrul Bey also sent messengers and corresponded like this. He protected Khalifa against Buveyhoğulları hazard and gained his confidence. This behaivour caused increase of confidence of Khalifa against Seljuks. Khalifa sent a messenger in 1045 and invited Tuğrul Bey to Baghdad. Tuğrul Bey could correspond this request  two years later. 1054. Objectives of visit was  to have to honor of serving Khalifa, to execute duty of pilgrimage and protect pilgrimage roads against Bedouins hazards, to fight with Fatımids  in Egypt and Syria, to protect Islamic World against Shiah Danger.Tuğrul bey  was mentioned in sermon before he has entered to Baghdad by means of Khalifa’s order. Arrival of Tuğrul Bey to center of Islamic World Bağdat (1055) was met with joy by Khalifa. Even though relations between parties stress sometimes, marriage between Khalifa with daughter of Çağrı bey Hatice Arslan Hatun has softened the relations. Tuğrul bey came baghdat twice in 1058 and came together with Khalifa again. In this meeting Khalifa gave all his secular authorities to him and remained as only religious leader. Later Tuğrul Bey got married with daughter of Khalifa by a magnificent wedding which was made in Tebriz. (1063)

Other state which was influenced from progress of Tuğrul Bey Towards West was Egyptian Fatımids. In this fight Seljuks were representing Sunnism and Fatımids were representing Shiism. Fatımids were supporting Baghdad Sıhne Arslan Besasiri who were acting contrary with Seljuks and attitudinized against Seljuks. Besasiri escaped and entered under order of Fatimid after arrival of Tuğrul bey to Baghdad. Besasiri took the advantage of Tuğrul Bey’s dealing with Ibrahim Yınal rebellion who was member of dynasty and entered to Baghdat and imprisoned the Khalifa and instructed sermon for behalf of Fatımid ruler Al-Mustansır. Thereby governance of Seljuks in Iraq has collapsed. Tuğrul bey come againbaghdad after defeating and killing Ibrahim Yınal. Even though Besasiry has left Baghdat before Tuğrul Bey has arrived  later he was captured and killed.

First contacts between Byzantium and Tuğrul Bey starts with first campaigns against Anatolia. Seljuks troops started raids against Anatolia under commandership of Hasan who is son of Musa Yagbu. Prince hasan was killed closed to Zap during these raids. As result of this sultan Tuğrul Bey Assigned Ibrahim Yınal and Kutalmis with raids against Anatolia for revenge purposes. Ibrahim Yınal and Kutalmiş defeated Byzantium Armies in Hasankale and captured their commanders Liparites. (1049) Byzantium rules sent great amount of ransom for saving commander Liparites. Main objective was signing a peace. Tugrul Bey accepted this request and made Liparites free without getting ransom. Following this he sent a messenger too and made some request from empire. One of this was instructing a sermon for behalf of himself and Khalifa in a mosque in İstanbul during Emevis period. Other reason was paying taxes which was paid to Abbasid Khalifas to be paid to him too. Empire accepted first offer but rejected second one. After rejection of paying tax by Byzantium empire Tuğrul Bey started Anatolian campaign personally after İbrahim Yınal and Kutalmiş. He captured Erciş and Bargiri castles and founded encampment in front of Malazgirt which is one key locations for entrance to Anatolia. He separate hid army into three armies. First arm was sent towards Kars. Second branch was sent towards bayburt  Çoruh area. Second branch progressed towards Erzurum highlands upto Erzurum highland under commandership of Tuğrul Bey. Byzantium generals decided to return back since they could not go out of castle. Seljuks raiders continued raids against Anatolia after Tuğrul bey has returned to capital city. Seljuks forces  captured Erzincan under order of commander called Dinar and arrived upto Malatya and returned back after martyrisation of their commanders. These raids were repeated again in 1059. This raider group took over Urfa and Surrounding and plundered and progressed towards Central Anatolia and took over Sivas and Surrounding.

Main idea for directing of Oghuz Turkmen raids towards Anatolia was to find homeland and pasturelands for their flocks. Also seizing, exploration and holy war are other ideas. These campaigns which were held by Seljuks Sultan and Beys were combined by Jihad Idea and gave a separate nature and meaning for them. However lands were being captured by their first owners just after recession of Seljuks after these temporary raids. Most important reason for this was that they did not leave administrative staff and military troops for defense after recession. Most important gain from this was breaking resistance force of Byzantium. And Byzantium became poorer materially and spiritually. Thereby proper background for future was obtained. Turks had the opportunity to know Anatolia closer.

Tuğrul Bey was tender minded and tolerant ruler in his decisions and actions. He has stable character and forgiver and modest depending on situation. He was patient against  even rebels. He did not give death penalty unless he is compulsory. His self confidence was very high. State which he has founded was extending from Ceyhun River to FOrat. He was a ruler who knows how to keep secrets. It can not be mentioned that organization is proper and settled since it was at foundation stage. We see that in this period Seljuks state was configured according to former Turkih state understanding. Not going over Fatımid state which was poor and preferring his niece Suleyman instead of Alp Arslan are considered as his political fitness. He completed his life in 1063 september of which majority of was expended within wars.

Seljuks During Alp Arslan Period

Tuğrul Bey did not have child. He declared Suleyman son of his brother has heir to throne  and Vizier Amidülmülk Kundiri enthroned Suleyman accordingly with testament of sultan. However other son of Çağrı Bey Alp Arslan did not accept this and entered into throne struggle. Date of birth is reported as 1029 January in historical sources. He took over the management actually in very young ages  because of sickness of his father. He gained achievements against  Karakhanids 1049 and Gahznavids when his father was healthy and these victories  provided him to gain fame within Islamic world. Alp Arslan and Süleyman were not alone in Seljuks throne after death of Tuğrul Bey. Uncle Muse Yagbu who was oldest member of Dynasty, other son of çağrı bey Kirman Melik Kavurd and son of Arslan yagbu  Kutalmış  were the ones who entered into throne struggles. Alp Arslan decided to fight with those firstly. He defeated his uncle Musa yagbu  by Huttalan, Saganiyan Emirs and eliminated this danger. He moved towards Rey just after this and encountered with Kutalmış who declared himself as Sultan around Damgan. Kutalmış has lost the war and died after falling down from horse. His  funeral was buried next to Tuğrul Bey. Alp Arslan who has defeated two his major opponents entered into Seljuks capital and ascended in Throne. Kirman Melik Kaavurd departed for seizing capital and returned back to his lands after giving up his sultanate imaginations. Alp Arslan who has defeated all his opponents was ascended in throne in April 1064 in Rey. Firstly he dismissed vizier Kündüri who was  supporting Suleyman against him and appointed Nizam ul Mulk as vizier.

In 1064 Alp Arslan took his son Melik Şah and Nizam ül Mulk and went on western campaign which was called as Rum Holy war. Troops under command of Melik Şah and Nizam ül mülk had military activities  at northern side of Aras River and Alp Arslan entered into Georgia and captured many cities and castle.  On 16 August 1064 he captured one of most important cities of Byzantium Ani. Conquer of Ani was met with great joy in Islamic world.  Khalifa kaim –Biemrillah reported his appreciations and congratulations with letter which he has sent with his special messenger and gave title of Ebul Feth to him. This great victory forced Byzantium to make agreement with Seljuks.

In 1065 Sultan Alp Arslan hurdled  Ceyhun and entered to Turkistan for maintaining pubic order. He has disciplined the Turkmen Tribes who did not accept Islam and make collaboration with Mongols and Turks and caused Kıpçak leader to be under obedience. He went to Cend visited graveyard of his grandfather Selçuk. First Turkistan campaign which Alp Arslan has completed in 1066 resulted with entrance of lands from Caspian ea to taşkent under dominance of Seljuks.

Sultan Alp Arslan appointed his son as heir to throne when he returned back to Khorasan together with great ceremony. Even though Kavurd has risen in 1067 since he could not agree with this case, he wished for forgive after he was defeated by Alp Arslan. Sultan who had overcome problems in western side  paid attention to western side. Turkmen tribes which come from central asia with great masses made conquer of Anatolia compulsory for settling Turkmen tribes   Commanders such as Gümüş Tigin, Afşin,  entered into cities in Anatolia  in eastern and southeastern side and conquered castles and were wearing Byzantium troops. These trials were military activities which will facilitate conquer of Anatolia in future.

Main objective of Alp Arslan who started to deal with Anatolia, Syria and Egypt was to terminate the negative activities of Shiah Fatimid State in Egypt and two headed appearance in Islamic world. Alparslan who took action with this purpose in 1070 over Azerbaijan surrounded Urfa after taking Malazgirt. He has removed siege since it was extended too much  and go over Aleppo which was controlled by Mırdasis. City was surrendered after long term of siege. After conquering Aleppo  sultan had campaign idea over Syria collected his army and retuned Malazgirt after learning that Byzantium empire has passed to Anatolia together with great army. Empire Romanos Diogenes encountered with Seljuks army in front of Malazgirt together with his army consisting of 100000 soldiers. Empire was prepared very well for this battle. Byzantium army had equipment and materials which were not seen before. Particulary having siege equipments had the purpose of solving Seljuk problem in Anatolia entirely. Byzantium army was consisting of elements which  do not have any common points such as language, religion, race etc. There were idea discrepancies , conflictions within commanders in Byzantium army  and also it comprised of elements such as frank norman, Bulgaria, slac, Peçenek, Kuman, uz, oghuz Georgia and Armenia which were fighting with each other. Majority of them were mercenary. On the other hand Seljuks armu was consisting of 40 thousand soldiers and all of them were Muslim turks. Byzantium army was armoured, had poor maneuver capability and awkward infantries on the other hand Seljuks army consists of lightly equipped cavalries which are movable and had high maneuver capability. One of most important which caused winning war was absolutely was plant . Alp Arslan kurt crescent wolf trap practice which was applied by Turks during war for centuries. Alp Arslan Separated his army into four sections accordingly with this. He hided two of these troops behind hills close to battle field. He separated two of them as precaution. Troops which were fighting with Byzantium army had high movement capability and  severely attacked Byzantium army and tried to wear by arrows. And after a while they recessed as part of plan. Byzantium army thought that they won the battle  and started to follow these troops. Byzantium army was pocketed after they were brought into desired location by troops which were placed in surrounding. Most of Byzantium army was defeated. Meanwhile Turkish origin troops which are present in Byzantium army changed their side to be with Seljuks who are cognate.. Empire and staff committee with him were captured. This was the first in history when a roman empire was surrendered by Muslim Turkish ruler. Victory was Alp Arslan And Seljuks Turks. (1071). Almost all historians of period notes that Sultan Alp Arslan behaved empire very well like a guest rather than surrenderer.  Alp Arslan signed an agreement with Byzantium empire which we do not have its text recently and sent to İstanbul by companions. Government has changed in Byzantium capital after they learnt the Malazgirt defeat and VII Mikhael Ascended in Byzantium throne. New Byzantium emperor captured his predecessor and probed his eyes and imprisoned him. Provisions of this agreement disappeared before entering into force since new emperor does not recognize agreement with Seljuks.

Malazgirt victory was an important  milestone in Turkish and world history. Conquer of Anatolia became easier after this victory. In fact gates of Anatolia were opened for Turks  

After this Anatolia began to be conquered with planned and programmed manner by Turkih Beys based upon order of Alp Arslan. Turkish people started to flood Anatola together with crowded masses and Byzantium started to recess step by step.

Following victory Alp Arslan Started new campaign over Turkistan for eliminating conflictions in eastern borders. Sultan which was severely injured by dagger of Yusuf Harezmi who was rebel castle commander  was martyred after 4 days. (24th November 1072). Alp Arslan was very brave, valiant, fair complaisant and forgiver ruler. He was a person who is religious giving importance to science and knowledge, generous and gave so much importance to public works. State was economically strong and rich during his period. Formerly Alp Arslan  devised making his son to be ruler for preventing possible throne struggles. As result Melik Şah  has ascended in throne in 1072 accordingly with this devise.

Seljuks During Sultan Melik Şah

Melik şah who is son of Alp Arslan was grown up very well by his father Alp Arslan. He left Nizamül Mülk as vizier who played an important role his ascending in throne. He has dealt with protection of borders and internal riots during first years of his governance. He did not deal so much with conquers out of borders. His uncles rioted with sultanate claim while Karakhanids and Ghaznavids were assaulting borders. Such action of Kavurd could lead collapse of state. Kavurt was defeated and captured in a war (16th May 1073) however he was killed by order of Nizamul mulk because of demonstration of affection of soldiers. Melikşah strengthened his position within country and abroad and maintained public order and after this he directed toward eastern side. Seljuks armies under Sav Tigin Commandership won the challenge  with Karakhanids and reached close to Semerkand.  He sent Anuş tigin and Emir Gumuş Tigin bilge over Ghaznavides who has assaulted lands of Melik Şah . These forces  forced Ghaznavid ruler Zahir al Dacla Ibrahim To Make Agreement.

After this he has moved capital city to İsfahan and we see that he has entered into great conquer actions. Agreement which was made with Romanos Diogenes became void after murder of Romanos Diogenes and Anatolia became available for Turkish raids. Forces under commandership of Seljuks commanders and Kutalmışoğlu were progressing towards Anatolia based upon this order. Süleyman Şah made Birecik as his headquarter and were implementing campaigns over Antakya. Meanwhile other seljuks forces arrived Sapanca coasts and were realizing conquer activities in İzmit and Surrounding. Turks controlled  Alaşehir in Aegean region and reahed milet in Islands Sea coarsss. İzmit and entire Kocalie was captured by Turks and entire area except coasrs were conquered by Turks.  Approximately 30 castles including Diyarbakır, Amid, Silvan, Meyyafakirin, MArdin , Hısnı keyfa, Cizre were talen from Mervanis and added to Seljuk’s lands. Musul and surroınding which belongs to Ukaylis were added into Seljuks lands by Aksungur and other Turkmen commanders struggling with shiism has become one of most important objectives of Seljuks Sultan during conquer of Anatolia.  With this perspective struggle with Egyptian Fatımids has important place in Seljuks history.  Seljuks Bey Atsız who was sent to Syria region with this purpose conquered Palestine and Jerusalem within short time period. Then he struggled with Akka ruler and took dımaşk in june 1076 and instructed sermon for behalf of Abbasid khalifa nd Melikşah in these areas.  His brother Tutuş was appointed as Syria Melik by Melikşah since he failed in Cairo in Egypt campaign. Tutuş forced to Eyptian army to recess which sieged Damascus and made Syrian conqueror victim of political conflicts andeliminated him. Tutuş became the only ruler of area after this period.

Sultan Melik şah started second Caucasian campaign after rebellion of Georgian King in 1079. He went to Georgia over Aras. Turkmen forces  which were sent to these area in 1080 took kars, Oltu, and Erzurum from Byzantium. And conquered Acara area Çoruh valley and area until Black Sea cost. In 1087 armenia become affiliated with Seljuks.

Kutalmışoğlu Suleyman Şah has founded his own state with capital city İznik and took Antalya from Byzantium and besieged Aleppo in 1086. This evolvement drive a wedge between Syrian Melik and Tutuş. Tutuş who took action because of reason that there is attack in his governance area defeated Süeyman şah in war. According to resources Suleyman Şah suicide since it could not stand this. Sultan Melikşah put the works in Syria by coming to Aleppo from Isfahan because of these unpleasant events between dynasty members. Yağı Sıyan was appointed as Antakya governor and Aksungur was appointed as governor of Aleppo area. Then he has gone up to Süveydiye. He opened his hands  against waves of Mediterranean sea  and prayed for the god for blessings. Lazkiye, Şeyzer and other castles were conquered too. Bozan who was one of commanders who has conquered Urfa was appointed as governor. After elimination of all conflict, entire Syrian area up to Sinai desert  was made affiliated with Tutuş  under Title of Damascus emirate as dimaşk being center. Sultan Melikşah left from Aleppo and has gone to Baghdad. He was met with great ceremony. Khalifa girded him with two swords as being ruler of east and west. Meanwhile daughter of Khalifa Al Mukredi got married with daughter of Sultan who was brought from Isfahan with great wedding ceremony.

Sultan Melikşah desired to overcome Karakhanid problem in eastern side. He besieged Samarkand and took all cities and castles which were governed by Ahmed Han. Thereby he made western branch of Karakhanids to be affiliated with him. Later Melikşah continued to progress towards  Kaşgar  and Kaşgar ruler Harun Buğra han Could not resist him and declared his loyalty. Thereby eastern branch of karakhanids become affiliated with seljuks. 1087

One of the most important which annoyed Melikşah was batıni problem.Batınis had important place between Sunni and Shii fight. Shii Ismail state was founded at the end of this action which was organized by Hassan Sabbah. Hasan Sabbah started Shiiaj propaganda in 1081 after arriving to Oran. He comquered Alamut castle and used as military base and began to be very dangerous. Melikşah sent his commanders Yorun taş Kızıl Sang  Kol taş over Alamut for eliminating this danger. While militaru operation s which were made for batınis were continuing successfully Sultan melikşah was killed after poisoning. (1092) Operations  which were executed against batınies were stopped after death of sultan.

Sultan Melikşah expanden his country from Kaşgar to marmara coasts to Caucasian to Yemen –Adden under 20 year ruling. Seljuks became one of most powerful states in this period. Sultan’s objectives were great. He desired to expand by conquering Egypt and west and found world hegemony. However he could not achieve these goals. He appoint his  son Berkyaruk as heir to throne after him. However his wife terken hatun  desired his son to ascend in throne. Meanwhile  Khalifa made a cooperation with terken hatun against Melikşah since he thought that the will be discharged from Baghdad. Sultan was killed by poisoning with them according to sources of that period. There was deep respect and affection within empire because of his fair and compassion. Christians, Assyrian, armeians and non muslim societies  created deep sorry after death of Melik Şah. Vizier Nizam ül Mülk has established a very good council(government) organization during Melik Şah Period which has made calendar under Celali title. Seljuks model for all Turkish Islamic governments up to Ottomans by central and province organization.

Disintegration of Great Seljuks Empire

Struggles  for throne started in Seljuks state firstly after murder of Vizier Nizamül Mülk and then Sultan Melik Şah. Empire was separated in for sections. These are:

  • Iraq and Khorasan Seljuks (continuance of Great Seljuks-1994)
  • Kirman Seljuks (1092-1187)
  • Syrian Seljuks (1092-117)
  • Anatolian Seljuks (1092-1308)

Anatolian was disintegrated from empire just after Sultan Melik Şah. They remained as being formally affiliated with center when Seljuks family has fallen from governance. Great Seljuks were ruined after latest great Sultan Sencer other Seljuks states continued their existence for a while.

Seljuks During Berkyaruk Period

History of Seljuks is full of throne struggles, and Batinş murders after death of Sultan Melikşah and Nizammülkç Terken hatun distributed great amounts of bribery to army dignitaries for making His son Mahmud as Sultan who is 5 years old against heir to Throne Berkayaruk and instructedsermon for behalf of Mahmut and declared his as sultan.Meanwhile Berkyaruk who is supported by followers of Nizam ul Mulk was declared as Sultan in rey. Forces of Terken Hatun were defeated in battle which was made between both parties In berucird. (1093). Terken hatun got married with İsmail to continue struggle but İsmail lost this battle. Meanwhile Syria Melik  Tutuş declared himself as Sultan and instructed Sermpn for behalf of its name. Tutuş invited Tutuş to Isfahan for cooperation. And tutuş firstly went over Aleppo governor Aksungur and Urfa Governor Bozan and eliminated them. Then he went over el Cezira and Diyarbakır  and ruled these areas and went over hemadan over Azerbaijan by continuing its forward operation. Meanwhile Terken hatun who was defeated by Berkyarus was killed by her own men in 1094  and opportunity for cooperation with Tutuş has disappeared. After death of Terken hatun his son also died because of variola  Beys who are affiliated with her entered in Berkyaruk side.  Berkyaruk also caught disease but healed and prepared for battle against tutuş. Tutuş was defeated and killed in war which happened between Berkyaruk and Tutuş who has come up to Rey. (February 1095). According to rumors Beys of Tutuş has changed their side since he was behaving badly against him. Also displaying flad of Melikşah was useful. Behaving hardly and very badly against Emirs, soldiers and people had role over losing battle by Tutuş. Syrian Seljuks continued their existence although death of Tutuş.  Sultan berkyaruk had to recognize this branch of family.

Berkyaruk  has  found his hegemony over country mostly after death of his opponents Mahmud and Tutuş. However this time his uncle Arslan Argun rioted in Khorasan as it will cover entire eastern region.  Thereby new throne struggle was starting. Berkyaruk sent his little brother Sencer over rebel uncle together with Atabeg Kamaç. He was following them behind them. However Arslan Argun was dragered by his slave and killed and this problem was solved without battle between parties. (February 1097). After these events Berkyaruk has appointed his brother Sencer as Horasan Melik and gave his authority for governing places until Gazne border. Meanwhile karakhanids who were governing Mavera ün nehir  declared their affiliation with Berkyaruk. After all these evolvements we can say that Sultan Berkyaruk has established governance over Seljuks state entirely.

Undoubtedly one of most important events of that period is arrival of crusaders to Anatolia. 1st crusader army passed through Anatolia and arrived Antakya and besieged this city which was being ruled by Yağsıyan. Yağsıyan sought for allies who will assist him against crusaders. Dımaşlk Melik  Dukak and Musul Atabey Kür boğa promised to help. However  KürBpğa was dealing with Urfa Besiege and could not arrive for help on time and this was for advantage of crusaders.  Crusaders which conquered Antakya in June 1098 because of betray of Armenian revert Firuz and made a great massacre. Yağsyan was killed by Armenians while he was escaping.  Kür Boğa who came towards Antakya based upon these evolvements besieged commander but he could not succeed because of idea discrepancies between them and mistrust between them. Seljuks army was defeated in war between Seljuks army and recessed towards Musul. After this win crusaders easily arrived Jerusalem and invaded there. (1099)

Berkyaruk tried to suppers the civil rots and succeed after hard challenges. However his brother Mehnet Tapar  who was  Azerbaijan Melik rioted with sultanate claim . Artıkoğlu İl gazi , Kür Boğa, gevheray and other beys  come together with Mehmet Tapar and invaded İsfahan.  Recession of  Berkyaruk towards Huzistan lead Mehmet tapar to have too much prestige. Hence Kür boğa, Gevheratin and Ceziret-i Ibn Omer judge Çökürmüş became at sides or Tapar. Abbasid Khalifa Mustahzir instructed Sermon  in 10999  based upon request of Mehmet Tapar. Thereby Mehmet Bakar became the Sultan of Seljuks. Berkyaruk came to Baghdad  and succeeded sermons to be instructed for behalf of his name but he lost he has entered against his brother around Hemedan.  Sermons started to be instructed for behalf o Mehmet Tapar again. (1100) Meanwhile Khorasan Melik Sencer was with Mehmet Tapar during this battle. Berkyaruk has come to Khorasan area and entered into struggle with Sencer but he failed. Berkyaruk has recessed to Huzistan and achieved to collect forces. Mehmet Tapar lost the battle which occurred twice around Hemedan in 1101between Mehmet Tapar and Berkyaruk.  Berkyaruk had its former power by this success and went to Baghdad and instructed sermon for behalf of its el. After Hemedan Defeat Mehmet tapar went to Sencer in Khorasan. Sencer and Mehmet Tapar went over Baghdad by their armies. Berkyaruk had to leave Baghdad and recess after this case.

These long and heavy struggles made tired both parties. Brothers made an  agreement on 27 December after negotiation of Khalifa. According to this Berkyaruk would have Sultan titile and Mehmet Tapar would have melik title. Management of  Azerbaijan, Diyarbakır and El Cezire would be left to Mehmet Tapar and annual 1.300.000  dinar tax would be paid to Berkyaruk. If necessary it would support military aid for Mehmet Tapar like a vassal. Even though Mehmet tapar has declared his sultanate he could not succeed. Berkyaruk considered that country was devastated because of these throne struggles, treasury was damaged because of loss of taxes and brother blood was poured for nothing and offered and agreement for Mehmet Tapar. Country was being divided into two parts as result of this agreement between parties in 1104. Azerbaijan, Eastern Anatolia, El Cezire  and Musul would be governed  by Mehmet Tapar. Sermon would be instructed for behalf of him  and nevbet would be plated for five times. Berkyaruk did not live so much after this event and died on 22 December 1104 at very early age. Even though his son II. Melilşah has ascended in throne instead of him  Mehmet Tapar could not accept this and descend from throne and became Sultan of Great Seljuks in 1105.

Struggles for governance which appear between brothers after death of Melikşah has shocked Seljuks state very much and state has entered into stagnation and then disintegration period after this event. Also struggle with batınis and crusaders were which are main hazards for state was ignored because of throne struggles.

Seljuks During Mehmet Tapar Period

While Mehmet Tapar was struggling with Mehmet Çöktürmüş riot in his area, he learnt that Berkyaruk was dead. When he learnt that small child of Berkyayuk  meliksah who is little child  was declared as sultan and sermon was instructed in Baghdad for behalf of this child he  immediately came to Baghdad and declared himself as sultan. Mehmet Tapar who had sultanate  took other members of dynasty under his obedience and established his authority.

Emir Çevlı who was governing in Persia and Huzistan areas during these struggles remained as being affiliated during these struggles and then he was awarded with administration of Musul area in 1106. But Musul ruler Çöktürmüş could not accept this case and failed his struggle against Çavlı and he was killed. Musul people sent notice to Anatolain Seljuk I. Kılıçarslan that they will surrender Musul after they ascended Çöktürmüş’s  little child after death of Çöktürmüş.. Kılıçarslan has gone over Musul after this notice and took over Musul in 1007. Çavlı who took action to take over Musul again made a  severe battle with I. Kılıçarsan. Firstly war was for the advantage of I. Kılıçarslan however Kılıçarslan lost war after some Beys have changed their size and he was drawn while he was passing through Habur çay. (1102). Çavlı send Şahin şah who was son of Kılıçarslan and captured in this war to Mehmet Tapar.

Other important event in Mehmet Tapar period is the struggle which were implemented against Crsusaders which pass trough Anatolia and flow towards Islamic world like a flood. This struggle which was given by Turkey Seljuks State in Anatolia  was being executed by regional emirates in northern Syria. Force struggles over area between Çavl, Tuğtekin, Emir mevcdud and Artukoğlu İlgazi were creating adverseness in war against crusaders. Thereby crusaders hat opportunity to settle coastal areas of Syria.

Other problem which was occupying sultan Mehmet Tapar was Batınis. Batıni activities started to appear by late Melikşah period and it became increasingly dangerous. They played role in murder of many statesmen including Nizamülmülk. Batınis who took over Isfahan castle and Alamut castle were starting to struggle against their opponents just afterunion.  Struggle against them was not very good in Slutan Berkyaruk period because of internal riots and throne struggles. Sultan Mehmed had to fight seriously against batınis when he ascended in throne. Sultan has sent its forces in 1107 and 1109 and inflicted heavy bow over them. He eliminated supporters of batınis who were statesmen  and relieved stated from their attack. Sultan which was organizing campaigns which disturbing Batınis every year , send Emir Anuş Tigin Şirgirin 1117 for destroying Batınis and taking over Alamut castle. Seljuks army besieged castle and while they were almost taking over castle a messenger gave the news of death of Mehmet Tapar. And  then besiege was removed and they returned back. Thereby desired result couldnot be obtained over this campaign which was made over batınis.

Sultan got sick in 1118 february and could not heal.  There were news concerning that he was dead. He organized a festive in sacrifice aid and showed that he is not dead. But he appointed his son as heir to throne since he had given his hope from life. Sultan was good ethical, and brave person. He was 37 when he was dead. Son of sultan who was 13 years old has axcended in throne based upon death of Sultan in 1118.

Seljuks during Sultan Sencer Period:

Khorasan Melik  Sencer did not recognize sultanate of Mahmut and declared himself as Seljuk Sultan. He pushed out Mahmut in Short period and ascend in throne of Seljuks period. Sencer had great experiences in state works even though he does not have education very well. He worked as Khorasan Melik during Berkyaruk and Mehmet Tapar periods. When he was melik he struggled with Karakhanids which have hostile attitudes against Seljuks. He went over Semerkand in 1113 and mad Karakhanids to be affiliated with them and then Gurlular  to be affiliated with them. In 1114 he made Ghaznavids to be affiliated with Seljuks. He established governance of Seljuks in Iraq, Azerbaijan, Taberistan, Iran, Sistan, Kitman, Harzem,  and Gazne Sultanate period.

After being Sultan in 1118 sencer made Merv as capital city of Seljuks empire. Gurlular and Karakhanids rioted against Sultan Sencer in eastern side. Sencer made Karakhanids as company which is subjected. (1130) After this campaign Gazne Rule behram Şah rioted by not paying annual tax. Sultan Sencer made him affiliated by a campaign. (1136)

Relations with Harzemşahs play important role in events during Sencer Period. Atsız seçcer was appointed as Harzemşah after death of Harzemşah Kutbeddin in 1128. However Atsız attempted to riot many times against Sencer because of his rebellion attitude and he was forgiven every times Seljuk  sultan even though he was defeated and returned back to his office. Harzem  was a buffer area for Seljuks in northern side against Karahitays and Turks who are not muslims. Forgiving Atsız  many times by Sencer depends on strategic importance of Harzem.

Karahitaylar wa a state which was found in Turkistan by branch of Kitans who were governing in China. Attempts for seizure Kaşgar area was prevented nu Karakhanids. Disputes occurred between Karakhanids and Karluks which were one of  political formations within region. While Karluks were requesting assistance from Sencer, karluks requested assistance from Karahitays. Sultan Sencer started campaing as results of request of karakhanids who were affiliated with him. Seljuks army which has encountered with Karahitays in Katvan which is closed to Samarkand was defeated. (9th September 1141). This defeat has become a milestone for sencer’s sultane which has lasted for long years. Seljuks stated was not invaded by non muslim state before. Thereby Sencer Lost land which remains at eastern side of Amuderya river and Behr city. This defeat made Sencer to be in difficult case since he was accepted as undefeatable for long years. Sencer who began to worry  took serious defense precautions. This defeat had great reflections in both Islamic and Christian world.

Katvan defeat of Seljuks encouraged the states who were affiliated with Seljuks and result them to riot against Seljuks state. One of them was Alaadding Hüseyin who is ruler of Gur and vassal of Seljuks in India. Alaaddin did not pay tax which he should pay annually and also he declared his independency by using Sultan title. As result of this Sencer started Gur campaign in 1152 and achieved a victory with final result after katvan campaign and gained his lost prestige mostly.

Ruin of Great Seljuks Empire and Oghuzs

Majority of Oghuzs come from Turkistan to western side because of pressure of karahitay and Karluks and were living around Belh. They were semi independent even though they were living within Seljuks border. Oghuzs rioted against state because of heavy taxes and practices of officials which were almost cruelty Even though sultan has gone over Turkmens in 1153 because of provocation of people around him, he was defeated and also he was captured. While Oghuzs  were riots suddenly they become head of state. They were not at fault for respecting against Sultan. They made him sit on his throne, bended on their knees and kissed the ground. Not allowing anyone to be ruler and keeping captured ruler at throne can be interpreted as they desire to continue the state even virtually. It is understood that Sultan Sencer experienced with many difficulties during his three years of surrender life. Turkmens were putting him inside an iron cage at nights and make him sit to his throne even thought he does not want. However he was able to get rid of his surrender life in 1156.  States which are affiliated with Seljuks notified their affiliation after learning escape of Sultan Sencer. Sencer  ascended in throne  again in capital Merv. However he was old and lost  his treasure and soldiers. Also there was competition between commander s which was worse than ever. It was impossible to sustain his reign again. He was almost experiencing a  second surrender life and he was dead in 1157 when he was 72 because of worrying.. He was buried into tomb which was constructed for him before.

Sencer was a ruler which gives importance to science, art and literature.  He was giving importance for religion and mysticism competent and he was listening their words and critics patiently . State was shocked because of sultanate struggles which started with death of Sultan Melik Şah. This bad course stopped with Sencer and Seljuks gained its prestige again. In addition to this a period which can be called as empires was experienced again.

Surrender of Sencer to Oghuzs accelerated the dissolution within state. Even though Sencer escaped from captivity and tried to maintain stability his old age prevented this. Internal conflicts which appeared after death of Sencer and external troubles were bringing the state to collapse rapidly. Activities of crusaders in Anatolia and Syria, sectarian conflicts with Shii Fatımis and Hashasi and batıni propagandas which are administered by hasan Sabbah from Alamut played important role in disintegration of state. Great Seljuks which is centered in Iran, and  small Seljuks states which appear in disintegrated Kiramn, Iraq, Syria and Anatolia lands sustained their existence until fourteenth century.

Iraq Seljuks (1119-1194)

Sencer did not recognize reign of Mahmud who was son of Mehmed Tapar.He declared himself as sultan and went over Mahmud. He defeated him in Save battle (1119) and captured him. But he did not behave badly against him and mad him son in law by providing him to get married with one his daughters. Rey area remained in Sencer according to agreement. Western side of empire were awarded to Mahmud provided that it is subjected to Sencer. Thereby Iraq Seljuks company of which capital was firstly Isfahan and  then hemedan has appeared.

When Abbasid Khalida started political struggle against seljuks for taking back the  authorities for earthly works. Sultan Sencer appointed Melik Mahmud to provide khalifa to be in legal borders. Mahmut defeated Khalifa and made agreement such that his governance will continue in Iraq –Q Iarab area. Mahmut was called and warned in  rey since this case was disturbing Sencer. Mahmut was died short time after this event in September 1131.

Even though davut who was  son of Mahmut was ascended in throne of Seljuks by state dignitaries  other members of dynasty and Selçuk şah did not accept this and took action. Objective of opponents who had establish ally with Abbas khalifa for seizuring Iraq throne was to terminate overlord rights of sencer over Irak I Arab and Iraqı Acem areas. Sencer wanted his niece Tuğrul to ascend in throne. Sencer started Western campaign against ally which was formed against him. Sencer won the battle between parties on May 1132 in Dinever and provided Tuğrul to ascent in throne of Iraq Seljuks and returned back to Khorasan. Objections started against ruling of Tuğrul adter Sencer has recessed from Iraq. Mehmet Tapar’s son Davud and Mesud Joined and took action in 1133 against Tuğrul  and defeated him and took over important cities such as Isfahan and Rey. However Tuğrul achieved to get its throne back in 1134 by forces he had collected.

After death of Tuğrul in 24th October 1134, Mesut came to Hemedan and seized reign of Iraq seljuks. Mesut was contrary with Khalifa during his first years of sultanate. Main reason for this was Khalifa was following eathly authorities and was recruiting soldiers for this reason. Khalifa started to mention names of Sencer and Prince Davud in sermons before starting battle against mesud. Thereby he could achieve sympathy o sultans and other peope against sultan  and was trying to prevent formation of common façade. However Khalida Müsterşid who has lost war which was made in 1135 has been consented with his former status by an agreement. Thereby Iraq –I arab began to be ruled by Seljuks again. While Khalida Musterşid was getting prepared for returning to Baghdad he was killed by Batınis. Raşid who was selected as Khalida afainst him  did not recognize agreement with Seljuks as well as he removed names of sencer and Mesud from sermons. Thereby Mesud took action with instruction of Sultan Sencer and forced Khalifa to to leave Baghdad. In 1136 new khali Abullah from Abbasid dynasty was appointed with Muktafi title and Abbasid Khalifa become affiliated with Seljuks again.

Sultan Sencer continued to interfere internal affairs of internal affairs of Iraq Seljuk state under title of Vassal. In addition that some viziers were appointed directly by sultan sencer and also financial works were under control too. We see that some Seljuks Beys rioted in Iraq area during Sultan Mesud period. Imamedding Zengi played the lead in riots od both khalifa and emirs. Therefore İmameddin Zengi was shown as ringleader by Period’s historians for internal riots which has appeared in that period. There were struggles with crusaders in Sultan Mesud Period. Similarly it has gained important successes in struggles which were made with Georgians. He had found good relations with Kirmansahs by marriage. Sultan Mesud who had experienced struggles within country and abroad died im 1153 after getting sick.

He was powerful and have strong personality.  Iraq Seljusk period experienced brightest periods in his time.

Persons who ascended in throne in Iraw Seljuks after Sultan Mesud had to struggle with internal struggles between 1152 -1194. Stability could not be obtained within state and throne struggles stamped in short lifetime of state. Latest Iraq Seljuk sultan Tuğrul was dead in 1194 and then Iraq Seljuks was disappeared in History.

Kirman Seljuks (1040-1187)

Dandanakan war is one of most important events in Seljuks history.  Seljuks empire which will play important role in Turkish history would be founded. After this victory Seljuks dşvşded the stated between members of dynasty in a council after this victory accordingly with Turkish state understanding. Kirman Area was awarded to  kavurd oldest son of Çağrı beyç Seljuks raid against Kirman province firstly started in 1042-1043. Melik Kavurd took Northern Kirman Area by troops which he controls. (1048( Thereby kirmans Seljuks was founded. Revenue which was obtained from this area was not enough to meet expenses of state and feed the regional people. New places should be conquered for supporting the state. Kavurt Bey took action with this purpose and took over entire Kirman area in short time period. (1050-1051)

While Melik Kirman was governing his area, Shii Buheyvis were governing eastern part of Arab peninsula. Kavurd decided to conquer Oman area and made an overseas campaign  which was the first time in Seljuks history. After oman Kavurd went over Persia which was neighbor with Kirman and maintained Seljuks hegemony there. (1062)

Kavurd  bey Also participated to throne struggles which appeared after death of  Great Seljuk Emperor Tuğrul. . However he gave up this idea when he learned that his brother Alp Arslan has captured capital and ascend in Seljuk’s throne and accepted his hegemony. Alp Arslan send and army over Kavurd in 1067 since he has rioted against Alp Arslan. Even though Kacurd could not resist and defeated and escaped he was forgiven by Sultan However he did not give up his sultanate claim and rioted again after joining with Fazluye. Rebellion Azluye was captured by efforts of Nizamul mulk. Alp arslan wanted to go over kaburd but began to worry about case since some  soldiers within army presented affection against him and stopped the campaign left Kirman and returned back to capital 1069.

Kavurd rioted during sultanate of Melikşa too and took action for seizing the throne. However Melikşah was not merciful against his uncle as much as his fathet. Kavurd lost this war against seljuks army and by garroting by bow string. (1073). Even though KAvurd Bye was fair, brave and good administrator, numerous struggles for achieving throne cost his life.

Sultanşah who is son of melik kavurd has won struggles which he has entered with his brothers and ascended in throne of Seljuks throne in 1074. Sultan Melikşah went over Kirman  within very short time period. There are not many information about reasons for this campaign. Sultanşah recognized that he could not resist sultan and sent messengers and sought ground for aggrement. Melikşah forgave him and left in his palce and returned back to İsfahan.

Turanşah ascended in throne of Kirman Seljuk after sultan şah. When he was in throne Turanşah saw some objections stay of soldiers in civil houses. He made some public works for correcting such adverse points. Kirmans Seljuks have lost dominance over Persia after death of Kavurd. Turanşah held two campaigns over area and made Persian area to be affiliated again. One of important events during Turanşah time was the riot of Oman people. This riot was suppressed in short time period and citizens were made to be obedient.  Turanşah confused ones who were thinking adversely about himself by performances it has implemented and he was dead in 1097 after 13 years of ruling.

His son İranşah was ascend in throne of Kirman in 5 November 1097. İranşah was faraway to behave accordingly with Seljuks dynasty. His days were full of entertaining, self indulgence, and carousal. He has entered into influence of Batıni sectarian because of influence of his bed friends and he caused death of some scholars and kadis and began to behave badly against people Citizens rioted under leading of Çolak bazdar. Killinh İranşah was decided by shaykh al islam of period and kadis since he damages Islam region. Even though Iranşah has beg for forgiveness after seeing that situation is contrary with him but he could not prevented events. He was caught and killed in 1101.

Arslanşah was ascended in throne of Kirman Seljuks after death of Kirman Seljuks. Oman people who utilized from bad management and throne change in iranşah period rioted again. Arslanşah caused obedience of Oman again. Even though Persian area people were under ruling Kirman Seljuks, regional people were not dealt and they were ignored. Therefore Great Seljuks sultan Mehmet tapar appointed Emir Çavlı  for being governorate of Persia. . hegemony of Kirman Seljuks was under hazard because of these activities of Çavlı in this area. Emir Çavlı and Arslanşah were almost fighting in area after a short while. Arslanşah organized a raid against Çavlı by its forces and defeated them. (1115). Even though emir AÇvlı started preparations for campaign against Kirman his death did not allow this.

Even though Merlik Arslanşah is affiliated with Sultan sencer at eastern side and established good relations with Iraq in western side. After death of Arslanşah in 1145, Mohammad and his brother Sekçukşah entered into a throne struggle  and he won.  During this throne struggles Salgurlılar state was governing in Persian area  which was controlled by Kirman Selçuks before. Melik Muhammed was dead in 27 June 1156. He was fair, skilled, far minded, he loved scholars and gave importance to science. Kirman was experienced a quiet and safe life in his period.

Tuğrulşah was ascendedin Kirman Seljuk throne after Melik Muhammed has died. He continued friendship with Salgurlula which was   established during his father’s period. Tuğrulşah period has important place in Kirman Seljuk’s history. Because atabeys, began to influence rulers in this period. One of important atabeys in this period was Alaeddin bozkuş. Melik Tuğrulşah died in 1170.

Interregnum started in Kirman Seljus after death of Tuğrulşah. Throne struggles started between brothers. These struggles are important factors for ruin of Kirman Seljuks. Management of state was captured by atabegs. Emirs who wanted to be atabeg were fighting with each other. Also cities were plundered and this was making cities weaker. Most important event of this interregnum was arrival of Oghuzs from Khorasan to Kirman. Oghuzs controlled kirman in short time period. (1183). Dinar who is one of Oghuz Bey started to capture important cities of Kirman one by one. Oghuz bey Dinar captured Berdesir who is centerof state and ruined Kirman Seljuks. (1187).

Kirman Seljuks rulers followed conscious economical policy. They paid special effort for providing trade road to pass  through their own country. They gave importance to public works activities and made their country prosperous. They worked so much for development of science and culture. Particularly Oghuzs Turkmens played important role in collapse of this state. Other reason was throne struggles. Oghuzs captured state easily which was weakened because  of throne struggles. Seljuks which have lived in area approximately for one hundred and fifty years provided great services for region. Kirman has experienced their most beautiful years during their period.

Syrian Seljuks (1070-1117)

Seljuk commanders came to Syria and Palestine after Dandanakan war. Conquests in this area provided foundation of Seljuks state in this area. According to sources, commanders which have arrived Syria and Palestine area are Hanoğlu Harun, Afşin, Sunduk, Kurlu, Atsız and Aşöklü. Emir who has arrived in region was Emir Hanoğlu Harun and he went from Anatolia to Aleppo with approximately one thousand Turkmen horsemen. Kurlu who was other commenders which came to Syria came to Palestine with Turkmens who are under his order, and founded a Turkmen beylic which is affiliated with Great Seljuks state with capital Remle 1070.  Uvakoğlu Atsız started to lead beylic after death Kurlu 1071. Atsız terminated hegemony of Egyptian  Fatımi hegemony in Syria and Palestine during atsız period.  Atsız captured Jerusalem in 1071 and made this location as capital of Selçuklu Meliklik abd instructed sermon for behalf of sermon and Alp Arslan

Atsız solved Jerusalem trouble and took action for taking over important city of DImaşk (Damascus). However there was dispute between Atsız and ther Turk bey in Area Şöklü.Söklü understood that he  could no succeed against adsız and invited Kutalmışoğulları which has newly found state in area. Allies declared that they are affiliatated with Shiii Egypt Khalifat for getting support of Egyptian Fatımi state. Atsız took action against this case and in 1075 he went over Söklü and allied and defeated them and notified melikşah about evolvements. Atsız conquered the Trabluşşam and sur cities which are under management of fatımis and instructed sermon for behalf of Abbasi Khalifa and Seljuk ruler (1075-1076). However despite all these evolvements dismissed  Melikşah atsız and desired to appoint Tutuş instead of him. Atısz wrote an effective letter to sultan concerning with this unfair issue. Sultan gave up his wrong decision since Nizam ul Mulk  has supported Atsız.  Atsız reinforced his place after this event and started to press Damascus. After a while he agreed with dignitaries and took over the city. Atsız who has moved capital of emirate from Jerusalem to Damascus behaved well against people and distributed foods and beverages for them . He distributed seeds for farmers and promoted them to pass to production rapidly by this manner. He tried to repair the city which was destroyed. These efforts of Atsız resulted with good results in short time and prices started to lower and people who escaped from this area before started to return back to city again. Atsız terminated hegemony of fatımi after conquering entire Palestine and Syria except Yafa and Askalan. Atsız desired to ruin Shii Fatımi state which always creates problem for Abbasi Khalifa and and Seljuks started a campaign over Egypt in 1076 but he has returned back after failure.

Sultan melikşah learnt that Atsız was defeated in Egypt campaign and dead and appointed Tutuş as administrator. Tutuş learned that Atsız is alive hen he came to Diyarbakır area from gemce and returned back to Diyarbakir, he notified Melikşah concerning with issue. As result of this Sultan Melikşah ordered Tutuş to go Aleppo instead of Jerusalem. Fatımi army which was activated for conquering Palestine and Syria  invaded Palestine in 1079 and go over Damascus. Atsız requested help from Tutuş after being in hard condition. After immediately arrival of tutuş in front of  Damascus, fatımi army eliminated besiege and recessed back. Atsız met Tutuş and notified his affiliation tı Tutuş and he was killed by Tutuş together with his brother by smothering by bow string. There by Tutuş started to rule entire Syria and Palestine cities.

Tutul behaved well against his people during his melik office. He had many public works in Damascus and surrounding area. He provided city to return normal life in short time period. Syrian Seljuk Melik is generally recognized Seljucj Sultanate as overlord and founder of Atsız did not create any problem about overlord and affiliation. Tutuş used melik title until death of melik şah in 1092. He did not enter any confliction with great seljuks for whatsoever reason and always notified affiliation against melikşah.

It was observed that süleyman şah who was conquering Anatolia has arrived Antalya region. Meanwhile Antakya which was governed by Byzantium governor Philaretos had many problems. Byzantium governor of city was very cruel  and hard. His son barsama and city stage decided to give city to Süleymanşah son of Kutalmış while governor was not present in city. Meanwhile Tutuş and Muslim were trying to conquer Antakya. Süleymanşah acted secretly and come close to city before them. Gates of city was opened by help which was obtained from inner side. Suleymanşah conquered city on 12th December 1084 and then went over Aleppo and besieged. Dignitaries of city said that Aleppo belongs to Great Seljuk sultan and can only surrender city by only approval of Melikşah. Suleyman şah conquered the residence areas around Aleppo until news  has arrived from süleyman şah. He besieged city again since news did not arrive from Süleymanşajç (1086) then , Aleppo people send notification to Tutuş who is present in Damascus and notified that they will deliver city to himself. Tutuş took action based upon this news and met with Süleyman Şaj. Süleyman Şah was defeated in wer which was implemented in Aynu Selam in 1086. According to sources Süleyman şah commit suicide since he could not stand defeat. Tutuş requested dekivery of Aleppo based upon agreement between them. However Alebbo dignitaries did not keep their promise and selected to stall him so he besieged and conquered city  1086.

Sultan Melikşah took action personally because of disorder in stability because of struggles between vassal states and emirs which are affiliated with them in Northern Syria.  Porsuk who was important commanders of period come toward Aleppo  in December 1086 while  Porsuk,Bozan and Aksungur were with him. In this case Tutuş left Aleppo and returned back to Damascus. Sultan Melikşah appointed Aksungur as Aleppo şahne, Nuh et turki as castle cmmande and hallal as official from tax affairs. Then Melikşah has gone to Antakya and appointed Yağsıyan jas Antakya şahne. Then Sultan has returned back to Aleppo and made necessary arrangements which will maintain stability in Syria. Firstly his brother Tutuş and all vassals declared their affiliation after these evolvements. Thereby Seljuk sultan controlled political and military activities of Tutuş and left administration of Syria region to his brother Tutuş and returned back to bagdad.

Sultan Melikşah died after a short while from Syria campaing and his son berkyaruk was declared as heir to throne. Tutuş did not accepted this case and declared himself as sultan and instructed sermon for behalf of himself. He wrote letters to governors of Aleppoi Antakya, Urfa  and declared that he is sultan of Great Seljuk and requested them to be obedient with him. They obeyed this request and entered under his order. Tutuş which has become stronger with new forces conquered rahbei Rakka, Nusaybin and Musul.Tutuş which has extended his governing area in short time period referred to Abbasi khalifa and requested instruction of sermon in mosques of bagdad as having capacity of Great Seljuk Sultan. However Khalifa declared that he can fulfill these requests if he rules islam world as being ruler in Khorasan and Maşrık, there will be no one as throne claimer, to have control over state treasure in capital city Isfahan and to be affiliated with khalifat. Tutuş come close to rey for fighting with berkyaruk who was declared as sultan in center. However tutuş remained alone since Aksungur and bozan has changed their sides together with their forces and could not complete campaign and had to return back to Damascus. ( Novemember-December 1093)

Tutuş who jad continued sultanate fight took action for punishing  aksungur and Bozan who betrayed themselves. He killed  aksungur and Bozan after conquering Aleppo Thereby Tutuş ruled Northern Syria, El Cezire and Urfa in short time period. Meanwhile he notified terken   hatun who was trying to ascend his son mahmut and request counter ally request against berkyaruk. Terken hatun responded this offer positively and he started his journey for going from Isfahan to hamaden but he was dead after getting sick. However tutuş obtained superiority in sultanate struggle against berkyaruk.  But way for sultanate over berkyarul because of death of variola  berkyaruk who was declared as sultan met with tutuş around taşlı village tutuş was defeated in war which was made in 1095 and was captured is injured and then he was killed.

There are some reasons for tutuş to have failed in sultanate struggle which he has entered after death of sultan melikşah. Tutuş behaved very hardly against commander and people in city and towns which he rules. This hard and sometimes cruel behviours prevented his succsess. His political aspect was weak although he has powerful and effective personality.

When Tutuş has died in 24 february 1095 Fahrul mulk declared himself as sultan in Aleppo and Sem l mulk declared himself as sultan in Damascus. Thereby  Syrian seljuks has been separated into two different emirates which were struggling with each other. Aleppo Seljuks emirate has continued its presence between 1095 -1118 and Damascus Seljuks emirate has continued its presence between 1095-1104. While Alebbo and Damascus Meliks struggle with Ahii Fatımi Khalifa after this date,  they will also struggle with crusaders who have been settled in Syrian coasts.

Turkey/Anatolian Seljuks (1075-1308)

It has the longest lifetime between seljuks. It has been founded by suleyman şah who was grandson of Arslan yagbu. Father of Süleymanşah was Kutalmış. Kutalmış has four more children except Süleymanşah. Süleymanşah conquered İznik 1078 and made capital city. He was dead during his struggle which he has made with tutuş he had made for ruling Aleppo. When starting his campaign Süleymanşah left Ebul kasım as deputy in İznik. Ebu kasım paid great efforts for maintaining present union and cooperation in Anatolia. Campaigns which he had implemented were extended against marmara coasts and straits.  He took sons of Sğleymanşah for suppressing riot of kutalmışoğlu riots and establishing his ruling in Anatolia. After death of Sultan Melikşah, Kılıç arslan who was son of Süleymanşah and come to Anatolia after escaping was declared as sultan.

There was not political union in Anatolia in this period. Some beys which has come to several locations  of Anatolia were ruling as state. Danismends in Sivas, Mengücekoğulları in Erzincan, Saltuklular inErzurum, Çaka bey in izmir, Tanrıbermiş in Efes and then Artukoğulları and Ahlatşah were included in these states. Also Byzantium was taking the advantage of the case and was pressing capital city of Seljuks İznik.

I.Kılıçarsan took action for maintaining political union in Anatolia thereby he has besieged Malatya in 1096. However he had to remove besiege when hehas learnt that first crusader group has passed to Anatolia. Crusader forces were destroyed in İznik by his brother Davut. However main crusader army under administration of experienced commanders went over iznik. Even though Sultan Kılıç arslan could meet them they could not stop them. Iznik was conquered by Byzantium in 1097.

Kılıç arslan understood that he could not prevent crusader army and referred practice of gerilla war across the way. Danismend gazi  and kayseri ruler inflicted severe casualty against crusaders in eskişehir together with assistance of hasan . Crusader armies were inflicted casualty severely throughout the way. However crusaders who succeeded to pass through Anatolia conquered Antakya, urfa and Jerusalem and founded crusader earlship here. Armenians who took the advantage of struggle of turks with crusaders achieved to found kingdom in çukurova region. Byzantium took action after Crusaders has gone out from Anatolian Seljuks lands and took back the areas where they have lost in coastal areas. Crusader campaigns inflicted casualty to turkey seljuks and capital iznik was lost. Kılıçarslan made konya as capital city since it considers it as safe area. Then he conquered Malatya which was under control Danismands in 1102 for maintaining the union in Anatolia. Syrian Seljuk ruler Ridvan has lost struggle which was made between İlgazi and Çaclı and he was dead in this war which was made close to Habur river. (1107)

I KILIÇARSLAN was a ruler who was leading in most depressed time of Turkish history. Most importat goal was to establish political union in Anatolia. He challenged with Crusaders and Byzantium during his 15 years of sultanate period and presented the power of survival of Anatolian Turkishness. Throne was empty between three years period between his death in 1107 and 1110 when Şehinşah took governance Kılıçarslan  appointed Şehinşah as Melik when he conquered Musul. Musul was conquered by emit Çavlı after death of his father and şehinşah was caught and sent to Sultan Mehmed tapar. Later Mehmet Tapar made Şehinşah free and he ascend in throne of Turkey Seljuks in Anatolia when he came to  Anatolia. His throne was lasted for short time and he was defeated war which he has entered with his brother Mesut and he was killed. 

I.İzzettin Mesud ascended in throne in Konya together with help of danismends. Danismentli emir gazi almpst took Seljuks under his control when he provided his son in law ascended in Seljuks throne. Dansismens extended their state after death They have conquered Malatya, kayseri, Ankara, Çankırı,  and kastamonu areas. Sultan Mesud could get rid of custody after death of Mehmed who is son of Danismnent Emir Gazi and he tried to establish political union in Anatolia which was lost by taking back Ankara, çankırı, Kastamonu and surrounding area. 1143. He tired to reestablish Seljuks union in Anatolia. He defeated II crusader army which has come to Anatolia since Musul and Aleppo Atabey defeated Urfa Crusader earlshio in 1144-1146  in a war which was made in area close to Ceyhan. When Sultan mesud got the governing  of state Seljuk state was jammed between konya and surrounding. He was fair ruler and protected rights of even Christians. He gave great importance to public works and Konya was constructed during his period.

Sultan II. Kılıç Arslan started throne struggles  with his brothers as soon as he has ascended in throne and made cooperation . Meanwhile he punished Armenian Price Stephan who rioted after taking advantafe of struggles between Seljuks and Danismends.  He defeated Byzantium Empero around Eskishir. (1159(. After guaranteeing Western borders  sultan took action for forming

Anatolian union. Firstly he took over Darende, Elbistan, Kayseri and Zamantı areas from Danismends (1174) then he maintained political union by taking Ankara and Çankırı who was being governed by his brother.

Byzantium emperor who was disturbed urbing from strengthening of Seljuks even though there was agreement with Byzantium was making plans for using both zünnun and şehinşah against Seljuks. Emperor who could not succeed in his plans against Kılıç arslan started a campaign for exact solution  by a great army which was controlled personally by himself.  There were more than one hundred thousand soldiers consisting of Serbians, Hungarians, patzinaks, . Even thouh Kılıç arslan has sent messenger committee for peace this was not accepted by emperor. Kılıçarslan recognized that war was inevitable and separated his army into small groups.  And made Byzantium forces worn by attacks which he made alongside the path. He made roads and water sources unusable. Byzantium army has become miserable was completely destroyed in narrow and steep pathway close to Hoyran lake around Denizli in 1176 after an ambush by II. Kılıçarslan  ( Myriokephalon). Emperor accepted the provisions of demolishing the bulwarks in western Anatolia and to pay severe indemnifications. Bad traces  of I. crusader campaigns were eliminated by this victory. And uluborlu, eskişehit and Kütahya and surrounding area were conquered immediately after this victory 1882.  That Anatolia is real homeland of turks become exact after this victory and hope of Byzantium to take back Anatolia which has lasted for one century was disappeared completely. Hence Byzantimum could not encourage to attack turks again. II Kılıçarslan conquered sivas, Niksar Tokat and terminated Danismendli beylik after death of Musul Atabry Nureddin Mahmud Zengi. (1178).

Sultan kılıçarslan divided country between his sons during last years of life. However after this failure throne struggles started while he was alive. III Crusader army under commandership  of German Emperor    come towards capital city  konya  after taking advantage of this situation. Kılıçarslan  and his son melikşah sent messenger to german emperor and desired to eliminate the hazard. Even though agreements was made for easy passage of crusader army  and provide money food etc for themselves  german emperor entered and plundered and destroyed city because of attacks of Turkmens alongside the road. Then emperor went on his way and could not get rid of Turkmens attacks was dead after drowning in slifke stream which he has entered for coolimg.  1190. Army of emperor has fallen into pieces before arriving to Jerusalem.

Sultnan Kılıçarslan was 80 years old and sick. He sheltered to his son Gıyaedding Keyhusrev which he has declared as heir to throne  during throne struggles between his sons. Kılıçarslan was dead during besiege of Aksaray which he has gone there for fighting against Melikşah together Gıyaseddin.

Even though I gıyaseddin keyhusrev has become Seljuk sultan in 1102 after death of his father his sultanate did not last too much. He went over Konya together with süleyman şah  who was tokatmelik.  Keyhusrev understood that he could not resist against his borthet and left konya and had to migrate Byzantium (1196)

Rukneddin suleyman Şah continued sultanate struggles with his brothers during first years of his sultanate. He provided obedience of his borothers except Malatya Melik Kayserşah and Ankara Melik Mesud. He went over Kayserşah for punishing his brother who was supported ayyubids. Rukneddin Süleymanşah who took action for capturing Erzurum which was owned by Saltuklular has captured the city in 1202 and terminated ruling of Saltuklu.  Rukneddin Suleyman Şah has gone over Georgians after capturing Erzurum but he was defeated by instant raid which was made by Georgian Army. 1202. Süleyman Şah recessed towards Anatolia because of this defeat. Propagation of Seljuks continued despite this defeat. Then Sultan has returned back to western side and captured Ankara. 1204. Rukneddin Suleyman Şah believed that he maintained the stability in Anatolia and decided to start a campaign over Georgia for revenge and saving his broken honor. But he was dead on the way of campaign in Konya-Malatya after getting sick. July 1204.

Even though Son of Rükneddin Şah was ascended in throne after death of Rükneddin Süleymanşah, his sultanate continued only for 8 months. I Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev was living exile life in Byzantium and he come to Anatolia in 1025 and took over sultanate from his nephew. He started activities for reinforcing union which was established in Anatolia..  He besieged Antalla which has important import and export ports in Mediterranean city. However it was not possible to conquer Anatolia which takes supports from Cyprus. Antalya was besieged in 1207 and conquered after support of Rums. After conquering city there was economical activities in city. Also Antalya has become important naval base. After handling Antalya problem he went over Çukurova Armenia baronage. He won the struggle which he has made with Armenian King II. Leon and  captured son of Kinf. 1209. Ayyubid sultan prevented Melik Adil to invade northen Syria and eastern Anatolia.  I. Gıyaseddin Keyhusrev was defeated in a battle against Byzantium in 2011 around Alaşehir and he was martyred by a Frank soldier in battlefield. I. Gıyasedding Keyhusrev had very good training and cultural activities were supported and developed during his sultanate.

I Izzeddin Keykavus has ascending in throne in 1211 after death of I. Gıyaseddin Keyhusrev. However Tokat Melik his little brother could not accept this case and took action but he could not success. İzzeddin Keykavus continued his father’s economical activities and renewed commercial activities between Byzantium and Cyprus kingdoms thereby he improved commercial relations.  1213. After this he conquered Sinop for maintaining commercial security of northern road. After Sinop izzetting Keykavus tried for conquering Antalya. Because in this period Antalya people rioted  after support of Latins and captured the city by night raid. İzzedding Keykavus besieged Antalya from sea and land and captured back again.  He went over Çukurova Armenians for maintaining security of commercial and pilgrimage roads and took them under obedience. Even though İzzeddin Keykavus has directed over Syria after reinforcing ruling in Anatolia, his campaign over Aleppo which was implemented in 1218 was failed. He died while he was getting prepared for new campaign over Syria. His corpse was brought to Sivas and buried here.

His brother Alaaddin Keykubat has become ruler after his death. His sultanate encountered wit Mongol danger which has occurred in Middle east. Alaedding Keykubat firstly tried to organize state works within country and abroad. He began to take precautions against mongol hazard. He considered that he could not resist this hazard alone and tried to establish ally with Harzemşah and Ayyubids. Also he reinforced and repaired castles and cities in Anatolia such as Konya and Kayseri against possible Mongol invasion and also he reinforced castles across borders.

While Alaeddin Keykubat took precautions against mongos, he also continued conquering activities. Firstly he conquered Kolonoros castle which is close to Antalya in 1223 and gave the Alaiye name to city referring the name of Sultan. Thereby he had an important commercial center and military base in Meditarrenean region.

People had migrated Anatolia coasts since Mongols has invaded Kıpçak city abd Sığdak at Kırım coast. Mongols have plundered these areas and then recessed after this Sultan sent Margrave Hüsamettin Çoban and conquered Suğdak. He cleared coasts up to sinop samsun and ünye from rums. Anamur, Silifke and other castles in western border of Anatolia were conquered again one by one. (1225). Çukrova Armenian Barony was taken under obedience again.

Friendship started between Alaeddin keykubat abd Celaleddin harizmşah who has come Selçuklu borders after escaping from Mongols. However political stress started with harizmşah about besiege of Ahlat which was Islamşc town. Warning of Khalifa and Ayyubids could not convince Celaleddin. In 1230 Celaledding conquered Ahlat and severely destructed and plundered. His behavior made war inevitable. Alaeddin keykubat made necessary preparations and started a campaign over Celaleddin. Seljuks armies gained a great victory. 1230. Cellaledin was killed by a peasant while he was escaping. 1231.

Turkey Seljuks became neighbor with Mongols after death of Celaleddin. Alaeddin Keykubat  was farsighted and cautious ruler  and he divined this danger before. In 1232 he personally sent messenger to Mongol ruler Ogedey and offered agreement.  Messenger which has come from Mongols in 1236 was requesting Seljuks to be under ruling of Mongols and send presents every year. Alaeddin Keykubat was paying attention for not disrupting relations despite these escess requests. Allaeddin kyekubat was trying to take precautions against Keykubat observed that Ayyubid Melik El Eşref was not dealing with Ahlat which has strategic importance in area  very much and he captured Ahlat for border safety. This case led disruption of Seljuks Ayyubid ally which was formed before. Forces which were sent by Ayyubids for invasion of Anatolia were repelled in 1234. During struggles Alaedding Keykubat conquered Harput and eliminated Harput branch of Artuqids. 1234. Following this Urfa, harrran and rakka cities were conquered by Seljuks. Ayyubid ruler has performed counter attack as result of this could not enter inside Anatolia since Seljuks forces held passages and he destroyed and plundered Mardin and Surrounding area because of his greed which would not clash an Islamic ruler. Because of this behavior which was particularly criticized by Arabic Islamic Sources Allaedding keykubat collected his army in Meshed Lowland close to kayseri for campaign over Ayyubids. Mean while some of Seljuks soldiers were surrounding diyarbakır. While Sultan was in preparation for campaign  Messengers which were coming from neighbor countries particularly Abbasids were offering agreement and cooperation against Mongol hazard. Alaeddin Keykubat was poisoned because of bird meat he was eating  in a dinner which was organized for behalf of messengers. (1237) Great ally which was desired to be founded Mongols could not be realized after his death.

Alaeddin Keykubat worked very much for union and integrity of Anatolia. For this purpose Syriand and Aleppo of which majority of population consists of turks were added to Seljuks lands and necessary works for economic development were accelerated. Many caravansarais were built over commercial roads for safety of commercial roads and comfort of tradesmen. Roadsafety was maintained by placing military troops in dangerous passages.Alaeddin Keykubat has continued the principle of meeting loss of merchant by government which can be mentioned as insurance with some respect so that he accelerated the international commercial activities which were made over Anatolia.  Anatolian cities were embellished with mosques, madrasahs, hospital, dockyard, bridge and caravansarais. Death of Alaedding Kekubat when he was 45 created irrevocable damages for Seljuks.

II Gıyasedding Keyhusrev ascended in throne after death of Alaeddin Keykubat. 1237. II  Gıyaseddin Keyhusrev who was estimated to be 16 years old when he ascended in throne  left administration to Sadettin Köpek just after he has ascended in throne. Sadettin Köpek defused his opponents particularly Harzemşahlı Kayır Han, Şemseddin Altun-Aba, and Kemaledding kamyar and many valuable and experienced statesmen  and thereby he drifted country to ruin. However after intrigues of Sadeddin kopek appeared in short time period he was punished by being killed personally by Gıyaseddin Keyhusrev. 1239.

Even though state order was tried to be strengthened again after death of Sadeddin Köpek, ruin could not beprevented.  Firstly Turkmen Sheikh who appeared around sumeysat  rioted against state and state could difficulty suppressed this riot. Weakness of Seljuks state for suppressing this riot encouraged the mongs and Mongols under commandership of Baycu Noyan has entered to Anatolia and besieged Erzurum. Mongols have captured city and massacred people and they returned back to their base Mugan.  Seljuks and Mongols met in Kösedağ in 1243 between Sivas and Erzincan. However Seljuks army defeated severlyç Mongols captured Sivas and plundered. They have invaded Erzincan and Kayseri and massacred there. Seljuks state lost his affiliated states after this defeat.  Armenian and Trabzon rums accepted hegemony of Mongols. This defeat drifted country to a great captivity. They massacred people and exploitated Anatolia more than half century.  II Gıyaseddin keyhusrev who drifted country towards ruin because of incorrect policies died in 1246.

Before his death II. Gıyasedding Keyhusrac was declared his little son Alaeddn Keykubat Keykubat as heir to throne. 1246.  However statesmen declared bigger son II. Izzedding Keykavus as sultan 1246. In this period all authorities were controlled by vizier Sşemseddin İsfahani . Vizier could maintain peace after some conflictions. However this lasted for short time period. Meanwhile Göyük han has ascended in Mongol’s throne. Kılıçarslan has gone to ceremonies for ascending in throne ceremony in Mongolia and returned back from there with order which dismisses his brother from sultanate and isfahani from being vizier. Vizier İsfahani was captured and then killed. After this date joint sultanate period has started in Anatolia. Names of II Izzedding Keykavus, Rükneddin Kılıçarslan IV and II. Alaedding Keykubat would be mentioned in sermons, edicts and moneys together. 1249-1254.

Ruin period for Turkey Seljuks after this event. Mongol activity and massacres continued between 1243 -1308 for suppressing Seljuks entirely. Severe taxes which were applied by Mongols, fights between Seljuks stateme for political interest has become ordinary events. Anatolian lands began to be planted and cropped by Mongols. While Mongols were filling their treasury by means of severe taxes, Anatolian people were becoming poorer. State authority which was broken down more after separation of state as Kızılırmak being border in 1259 resulted with invasion attempt of Karaman Turkmens in 1262. State dignitary from Kayseri Hatıroğlu supported this riot which was indeed a riot against invasion of Mongols in Anatolia. However this attempt resulted with failure. In 1277 Egyptian Memluk Sultan Baybars has come to Anatolia until Kayseri for supporting hatıroğlu and declaring cimri as sultan by claiming him as member of dynasty in 1277 by Karamanoğlu Mehmet Beywas not enough to finish Mongol Invasion and also lead with occurrence of several political economical and social fluctuations. After start of ruing o Turkey Seljuks state, Several Oghuz trines, Turkmen Beus and commanders started to found several local beyliks around  several locations in Anatolia.